(1/20287) Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella.

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

(2/20287) Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases.

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

(3/20287) Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins.

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

(4/20287) Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast.

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

(5/20287) Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB.

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

(6/20287) Association of a myosin immunoanalogue with cell envelopes of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and its participation in swelling and germination.

A myosin immunoanalogue was identified in conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus by Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and gold immunoelectron microscopy with two different antimyosin antibodies. The distribution pattern of this protein was followed during the early stages of germination. A single 180-kDa polypeptide, detected predominantly in a cell envelope extract, was found to cross-react with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against vertebrate muscle myosin. Immunoelectron microscopy permitted precise localization of this polypeptide, indicating that myosin analogue was mainly distributed along the plasma membrane of resting and swollen conidia. In germinating conidia, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed myosin analogue at the periphery of germ tubes, whereas actin appeared as dispersed punctate structures in the cytoplasm that were more concentrated at the site of germ tube emergence. A myosin ATPase inhibitor, butanedione monoxime, greatly reduced swelling and blocked germination. In contrast, when conidia were treated with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, swelling was not affected and germination was only partially reduced. Butanedione monoxime-treated conidia showed accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles and did not achieve cell wall reorganization, unlike swollen conidia. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for this myosin analogue in the deposition of cell wall components during germination of A. fumigatus conidia and therefore in host tissue colonization.  (+info)

(7/20287) Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes.

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

(8/20287) An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p.

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)