Lipophilicity determination of some potential photosystem II inhibitors on reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography.
The retention characteristics of 25 2-cyano-3-methylthio-3-substituted amine-acrylates are determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) with methanol-water mixtures as eluents. The relationship between Rm values and partition coefficients (C log P) are established. The Rm values decrease linearly with increasing methanol concentration in the eluent. The Rm values extrapolated to zero organic modifier concentration (Rm0) in the eluent are highly related to C log P. The Rm0 value can be used to evaluate the lipophilicity of this kind of compound. (+info)
Demonstration of a new mammalian isoleucine catabolic pathway yielding an Rseries of metabolites.
1. Normal human urine contains small amounts (less than 4 mg/g of creatinine) of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, formed, we believe, by a previously undisclosed endogenous catabolic pathway for the oxidation of a newly described series of R metabolites of isoleucine. 2. Urinary excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid is variably increased in defects of isoleucine oxidation at distal steps in the catabolic pathway (3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency) and is diminished when proximal steps of the oxidative pathway are blocked as in branched-chain oxo acid decarboxylase deficiency ('maple-syrup-urine' disease). 3. Precursors of R-pathway metabolites [R(-)-2-methylbutyrate and 2-ethylacrylate ] lead to increased 2-ethylhydracrylate excretion in the mammal(rat, rabbit and dog); the corresponding S metabolites [S(+)-2-methylbutyric acid and tiglic acid ], when given in equimolar amounts, have little effect on its excretion, suggesting that little or no interconversion between S and R metabolites occurs in vivo. 4. Studies with 2H-labelled precursors indicate that conversion of R 2-methylbutyrate into 2-ethylhydracrylic acid occurs by a direct pathway (apparently via 2-ethylacrylic acid). 5. The further oxidation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid to ethylmalonic acid was demonstrated, and may be analogous to S-metabolite oxidation via methyl malonate. 6. Valine metabolites do not interact with the R=isoleucine pathway under the conditions of these experiments in vivo. (+info)
Relative developmental toxicities of acrylates in rats following inhalation exposure.
The developmental toxicities of seven acrylates were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats after inhalation exposure for 6 h/day, during days 6 to 20 of gestation. The exposure concentrations were: for acrylic acid, 50, 100, 200, or 300 ppm; for methyl acrylate, 25, 50, or 100 ppm; for ethyl acrylate, 25, 50, 100, or 200 ppm; for butyl acrylate, 100, 200, or 300 ppm; for ethylhexyl acrylate, 50, 75, or 100 ppm; for hydroxyethyl acrylate, 1, 5, or 10 ppm; and for hydroxypropyl acrylate, 1, 5, or 10 ppm. No treatment-related increases in embryo/fetal mortality or fetal malformations were observed after exposure to any of these acrylates. Fetal toxicity, indicated by reduced fetal body weight, was observed after exposure to 300 ppm acrylic acid, 100 ppm methyl acrylate, 200 ppm ethyl acrylate, and 200 or 300 ppm butyl acrylate in the presence of overt signs of maternal toxicity. While there was evidence of maternal toxicity, no significant developmental toxic effects were observed after exposure to ethylhexyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate, or hydroxypropyl acrylate at any concentration. These results indicate that inhaled acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, ethylhexyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate, and hydroxypropyl acrylate are not selectively toxic to the embryo or fetus. (+info)
A new carboxylesterase from Brevibacterium linens IFO 12171 responsible for the conversion of 1,4-butanediol diacrylate to 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate: purification, characterization, gene cloning, and gene expression in Escherichia coli.
A carboxylesterase that is responsible for conversion of 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BDA) to 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (4HBA) was found in Brevibacterium lines IFO 12171, and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme was active toward a variety of diesters of ethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol, and 1,6-hexanediol. The K(m) and kcat of the enzyme for BDA were 3.04 mM and 203,000 s-1, respectively. The reaction with the purified enzyme gave 98 mM 4HBA from 100 mM BDA for 60 min. The enzyme gene was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of the bacterium. The open reading frame encoding the enzyme was 1176 bp long, corresponding to a protein of 393 amino acid residues (molecular mass = 42,569 Da). The deduced amino acid sequence contained the tetra peptide motif sequence, STTK, and the serine residue was confirmed to be the catalytic center of BDA esterase by site-directed mutagenesis for several amino acid residues. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter, and the gene product (a fusion protein with 6 amino acid residues from beta-galactosidase) showed the same catalytic properties as the enzyme from the parent strain. (+info)
Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.
We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. (+info)
Kinetic and inhibition studies on substrate channelling in the bifunctional enzyme catalysing C-terminal amidation.
A series of experiments has been conducted to investigate the possibility that substrate channelling might occur in the bifunctional forms of enzymes carrying out C-terminal amidation, a post-translational modification essential to the biological activity of many neuropeptides. C-terminal amidation entails sequential action by peptidylglycine mono-oxygenase (PAM, EC 22.214.171.124) and peptidylamidoglycolate lyase (PGL, EC 126.96.36.199), with the mono-oxygenase catalysing conversion of a glycine-extended pro-peptide into the corresponding alpha-hydroxyglycine derivative, which is then converted by the lyase into amidated peptide plus glyoxylate. Since the mono-oxygenase and lyase reactions exhibit tandem reaction stereospecificities, channelling of the alpha-hydroxy intermediate might occur, as is the case for some other multifunctional enzymes. Selective inhibition of the mono-oxygenase domain by competitive ester inhibitors, as well as mechanism-based mono-oxygenase inactivation by the novel olefinic inhibitor 5-acetamido-4-oxo-6-phenylhex-2-enoate (N-acetylphenylalanyl acrylate), has little to no effect on the kinetic parameters of the lyase domain of the AE from Xenopus laevis. Similarly, inhibition of the lyase domain by the potent dioxo inhibitor 2,4-dioxo-5-acetamido-6-phenylhexanoate has little effect on the activity of the monooxygenase domain in the bifunctional enzyme. A series of experiments on intermediate accumulation and conversion were also carried out, along with kinetic investigations of the reactivities of the monofunctional and bifunctional forms of PAM and PGL towards substrates and inhibitors. Taken together, the results demonstrate the kinetic independence of the mono-oxygenase and lyase domains, and provide no evidence for substrate channelling between these domains in the bifunctional amidating enzyme. (+info)
ACE inhibition and glucose transport in insulinresistant muscle: roles of bradykinin and nitric oxide.
Acute administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle of the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. The present study was designed to assess whether this effect is mediated by an increase in the nonapeptide bradykinin (BK), by a decrease in action of ANG II, or both. Obese Zucker rats (8-9 wk old) were treated for 2 h with either captopril (50 mg/kg orally), bradykinin (200 micrograms/kg ip), or the ANG II receptor (AT(1) subtype) antagonist eprosartan (20 mg/kg orally). Captopril treatment enhanced in vitro insulin-stimulated (2 mU/ml) 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the epitrochlearis muscle by 22% (251 +/- 7 vs. 205 +/- 9 pmol. mg(-1). 20 min(-1); P < 0.05), whereas BK treatment enhanced this variable by 18% (249 +/- 15 vs. 215 +/- 7 pmol. mg(-1). 20 min(-1); P < 0.05). Eprosartan did not significantly modify insulin action. The BK-mediated increase in insulin action was completely abolished by pretreatment with either the specific BK-B(2) receptor antagonist HOE 140 (200 micrograms/kg ip) or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg ip). Collectively, these results indicate that the modulation of insulin action by BK likely underlies the metabolic effects of ACE inhibitors in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. Moreover, this modulation of insulin action by BK is likely mediated through B(2) receptors and by an increase in nitric oxide production and/or action in skeletal muscle tissue. (+info)
Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats.
cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP. (+info)