Diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders: interobserver agreement and determinants of disagreement.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the interobserver agreement on the diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders, based on history taking and physical examination, and to identify the determinants of diagnostic disagreement. METHODS: Consecutive eligible patients with shoulder pain were recruited in various health care settings in the Netherlands. After history taking, two physiotherapists independently performed a physical examination and subsequently the shoulder complaints were classified into one of six diagnostic categories: capsular syndrome (for example, capsulitis, arthritis), acute bursitis, acromioclavicular syndrome, subacromial syndrome (for example, tendinitis, chronic bursitis), rest group (for example, unclear clinical picture, extrinsic causes) and mixed clinical picture. To quantify the interobserver agreement Cohen's kappa was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which clinical characteristics were determinants of diagnostic disagreement. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 201 patients with varying severity and duration of complaints. The kappa for the classification of shoulder disorders was 0.45 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.37, 0.54). Diagnostic disagreement was associated with bilateral involvement (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.7), chronic complaints (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.7), and severe pain (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Only moderate agreement was found on the classification of shoulder disorders, which implies that differentiation between the various categories of shoulder disorders is complicated. Especially patients with high pain severity, chronic complaints and bilateral involvement represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. As diagnostic classification is a guide for treatment decisions, unsatisfactory reproducibility might affect treatment outcome. To improve the reproducibility, more insight into the reproducibility of clinical findings and the value of additional diagnostic procedures is needed. (+info)
Radiographic joint space in rheumatoid acromioclavicular joints: a 15 year prospective follow-up study in 74 patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate radiographically the acromioclavicular joint space in patients with long-term rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A cohort of 74 patients with RA was followed prospectively for 15 yr. At the end point, 148 shoulders were radiographed with a standard method. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint space was examined from the radiographs with a method developed previously for population studies; the joint space was measured at its superior and inferior border, and the average of the two measurements, the integral space, calculated. RESULTS: Mean AC joint space in RA patients was 4.9 (S.D. 3.7), range 0-20.5 mm; 6.2 mm (S.D. 5.1) in men and 4.5 mm (S.D. 3. 0) in women. An AC joint space wider than 7 mm in men was found in 11 (31%) out of 36 joints and wider than 6 mm in women in 17 (15%) out of 112 joints. Joint space widening was associated (r=0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.90) with increasing destruction (Larsen grading) of the joint and it seems to be an inevitable consequence of AC joint affection in RA. Joint space widening is more progressive on the caudal side because of the nature of the erosive destruction. Degeneration with joint space narrowing was observed in 8 (11%) patients (11 joints, 7%; three bilateral). CONCLUSIONS: The largest value of the joint space may be used when evaluating rheumatoid AC joint space. In RA patients, a joint space of >7 mm in men and >5 mm in women is a sign of destructive AC joint affection. (+info)
Relation of glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joint destruction in rheumatoid shoulder. A 15 year follow up study.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation of glenohumeral (GH) and acromioclavicular (AC) joint involvement in a cohort of 74 patients with seropositive and erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed up prospectively. METHODS: At the 15 year follow up radiographs of 148 shoulders were evaluated, and the grade of destruction of GH and AC joints were assessed by the Larsen method. One GH joint arthroplasty had been performed after 13 years of the disease onset and the preoperative radiograph was evaluated. RESULTS: Erosive involvement (Larsen grade >/= 2) was observed in 96 of 148 (65%) of the shoulders. Both GH and AC joints were affected in 62 of 148 (42%) shoulders. GH joint alone was involved in nine (6%) shoulders and only AC joint was affected in 25 (17%) shoulders. AC joint destruction correlated with the GH joint destruction, r=0.74 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65 to 0.80 ). CONCLUSION: In RA AC joint is affected more often than the GH joint, but in half of the patients both joints are involved. This should be remembered when treating painful rheumatoid shoulder. (+info)
Arthroscopic Mumford procedure variation of technique.
Fifty-seven patients had arthroscopic Mumford procedures for acromioclavicular pain non-responsive to conservative treatment. Thirty-nine of these patients had concomitant rotator cuff repairs. All had significant improvement of their distal clavicular pain. Neither the amount nor the completeness of distal clavicle resection affected the results. Arthroscopic distal clavicle resection is a safe and effective method of alleviating acromioclavicular pain. (+info)
The relationship of age, gender, and degenerative changes observed on radiographs of the shoulder in asymptomatic individuals.
Radiographs of the shoulders of 84 asymptomatic individuals aged between 40 and 83 years were evaluated to determine changes in 23 specific areas. Two fellowship-trained orthopaedic radiologists graded each area on a scale of 0 to II (normal 0, mild changes I, advanced changes II). Logistic regression analysis indicated age to be a significant predictor of change (p < 0.05) for sclerosis of the medial acromion and lateral clavicle, the presence of subchondral cysts in the acromion, formation of osteophytes at the inferior acromion and clavicle, and narrowing and degeneration of the acromioclavicular joint. Gender was not a significant predictor (p > 0.05) for radiological changes. Student's t-test determined significance (p < 0.05) between age and the presence of medial acromial and lateral clavicular sclerosis, subchondral acromial cysts, inferior acromial and clavicular osteophytes, and degeneration of the acromioclavicular joint. Radiological analysis in conditions such as subacromial impingement, pathology of the rotator cuff, and acromioclavicular degeneration should be interpreted in the context of the symptoms and normal age-related changes. (+info)
Benefits and risks of using local anaesthetic for pain relief to allow early return to play in professional football.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risks and benefits of the use of local anaesthetic in a descriptive case series from three professional football (rugby league and Australian football) teams. METHODS: Cases of local anaesthetic use (both injection and topical routes) and complications over a six year period were recorded. Complications were assessed using clinical presentation and also by recording all cases of surgery, incidences of players missing games or leaving the field through injury, and causes of player retirement. RESULTS: There were 268 injuries for which local anaesthetic was used to allow early return to play. There were 11 minor and six major complications, although none of these were catastrophic or career ending. About 10% of players taking the field did so with the assistance of local anaesthetic. This rate should be considered in isolation and not seen to reflect standard practice by team doctors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of local anaesthetic in professional football may reduce the rates of players missing matches through injury, but there is the risk of worsening the injury, which should be fully explained to players. A procedure should only be used when both the doctor and player consider that the benefits outweigh the risks. (+info)
Coracoclavicular joint: osteologic study of 1020 human clavicles.
We examined 1020 dry clavicles from cadavers of Italian origin to determine the prevalence of the coracoclavicular joint (ccj), a diarthrotic synovial joint occasionally present between the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the horizontal part of the coracoid process. Five hundred and nine clavicles from individuals of different ages were submitted to X-ray examination. Using radiography, we measured the entire length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve, on which the distance between the conoid tubercle and the coracoid process depends. We also used radiography to record the differences in prevalence of arthritis in two neighbouring joints, the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. Of the 1020 clavicles, eight (0.8%) displayed the articular facet of the ccj. No statistical correlation was found between clavicular length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve. The prevalence of arthritis in clavicles with ccj was higher than that revealed in clavicles without ccj. The prevalence of ccj in the studied clavicles is lower than that observed in Asian cohorts. Furthermore, ccj is not conditioned by either length or sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve of the clavicle. Finally, the assumption that ccj is a predisposing factor for degenerative changes of neighbouring joints is statistically justified. (+info)
Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the shoulder region.
The shoulder is the site of multiple injuries and inflammatory conditions that lend themselves to diagnostic and therapeutic injection. Joint injection should be considered after other therapeutic interventions such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and activity-modification have been tried. Indications for glenohumeral joint injection include osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. For the acromioclavicular joint, injection may be used for diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis and distal clavicular osteolysis. Subacromial injections are useful for a range of conditions including adhesive capsulitis, subdeltoid bursitis, impingement syndrome, and rotator cuff tendinosis. Scapulothoracic injections are reserved for inflammation of the involved bursa. Persistent pain related to inflammatory conditions of the long head of the biceps responds well to injection in the region. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes. (+info)