A soluble form of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) with S252W mutation acts as an efficient inhibitor for the enhanced osteoblastic differentiation caused by FGFR2 activation in Apert syndrome. (33/135)

Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by craniosynostosis and bony syndactyly associated with point mutations (S252W and P253R) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 that cause FGFR2 activation. Here we investigated the role of the S252W mutation of FGFR2 on osteoblastic differentiation. Osteoblastic cells derived from digital bone in two Apert patients with the S252W mutation showed more prominent alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression, and mineralized nodule formation compared with the control osteoblastic cells derived from two independent non-syndromic polydactyly patients. Stable clones of the human MG63 osteosarcoma cells (MG63-Ap and MG63-IIIc) overexpressing a splice variant form of FGFR2 with or without the S252W mutation (FGFR2IIIcS252W and FGFR2IIIc) showed a higher RUNX2 mRNA expression than parental MG63 cells. Furthermore MG63-Ap exhibited a higher osteopontin mRNA expression than did MG63-IIIc. The enhanced osteoblastic marker gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of the MG63-Ap was inhibited by the conditioned medium from the COS-1 cells overexpressing the soluble FGFR2IIIcS252W. Furthermore the FGF2-induced osteogenic response in the mouse calvarial organ culture system was blocked by the soluble FGFR2IIIcS252W. These results show that the S252W mutation in the FGFR2 gene enhances the osteoblast phenotype in human osteoblasts and that a soluble FGFR2 with the S252W mutation controls osteoblast differentiation induced by the S252W mutation through a dominant negative effect on FGFR2 signaling in Apert syndrome.  (+info)

A further mutation of the FGFR2 tyrosine kinase domain in mild Crouzon syndrome. (34/135)

We report a family heterozygous for a newly identified mutation in the tyrosine kinase I domain of the FGFR2 gene (1576A > G, encoding the missense substitution Lys526Glu), associated with variable expressivity of Crouzon syndrome, including clinical nonpenetrance. Our observations expand both the clinical and molecular spectrum of this unusual subset of FGFR2 mutations.  (+info)

Cbl-mediated ubiquitination of alpha5 integrin subunit mediates fibronectin-dependent osteoblast detachment and apoptosis induced by FGFR2 activation. (35/135)

Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is an important mechanism regulating osteoblast function. To gain an insight into the regulatory role of FGF receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling in osteoblasts, we investigated integrin-mediated attachment and cell survival in human calvarial osteoblasts expressing activated FGFR2. FGFR2 activation reduced osteoblast attachment on fibronectin. This was associated with reduced expression of the alpha5 integrin subunit normally expressed in human calvarial osteoblasts in vivo. Treatment with lactacystin, a potent inhibitor of proteasome, restored alpha5 integrin levels in FGFR2 mutant osteoblasts. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that alpha5 integrin interacts with both the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ubiquitin. Immunocytochemistry revealed that alpha5 integrin colocalizes with FGFR2 and Cbl at the leading edge in membrane ruffle regions. Transfection with the 70Z-Cbl mutant lacking the RING domain required for Cbl-ubiquitin interaction, or with the G306E Cbl mutant that abolishes the binding ability of Cbl phosphotyrosine-binding domain restored alpha5 integrin levels. This suggests that Cbl-mediated ubiquitination plays an essential role in alpha5 integrin proteasome degradation induced by FGFR2 activation. Reduced alpha5 integrin expression was associated with an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and increased caspase-9 and -3 activities in FGFR2 mutant osteoblasts. Forced expression of alpha5 integrin rescued cell attachment and corrected both the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in FGFR2 mutant osteoblasts. We show that Cbl recruitment induced by FGFR2 activation triggers alpha5 integrin degradation by the proteasome, which results in reduced osteoblast attachment on fibronectin and caspase-dependent apoptosis. This identifies a functional role of the alpha5 integrin subunit in the induction of apoptosis triggered by FGFR2 activation in osteoblasts, and reveals that a Cbl-dependent mechanism is involved in the coordinated regulation of cell apoptosis induced by alpha5 integrin degradation.  (+info)

Altered Twist1 and Hand2 dimerization is associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and limb abnormalities. (36/135)

Autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 are associated with limb and craniofacial defects in humans with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. The molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes is poorly understood. We show that ectopic expression of the related basic helix-loop-helix factor Hand2 phenocopies Twist1 loss of function in the limb and that the two factors have a gene dosage-dependent antagonistic interaction. Dimerization partner choice by Twist1 and Hand2 can be modulated by protein kinase A- and protein phosphatase 2A-regulated phosphorylation of conserved helix I residues. Notably, multiple Twist1 mutations associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome alter protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of Twist1, suggesting that misregulation of Twist1 dimerization through either stoichiometric or post-translational mechanisms underlies phenotypes of individuals with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.  (+info)

Mutations in snail family genes enhance craniosynostosis of Twist1 haplo-insufficient mice: implications for Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome. (37/135)

In Drosophila, mutations in the Twist gene interact with mutations in the Snail gene. We show that the mouse Twist1 mutation interacts with Snai1 and Snai2 mutations to enhance aberrant cranial suture fusion, demonstrating that genetic interactions between genes of the Twist and Snail families have been conserved during evolution.  (+info)

A role for fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 in the altered osteoblast phenotype induced by Twist haploinsufficiency in the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. (38/135)

Genetic mutations of Twist, a bHLH transcription factor, induce premature fusion of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) in the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS). The mechanisms by which Twist haploinsufficiency may alter osteoblast differentiation are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (Fgfr2) in the abnormal osteoblast differentiation in SCS. Cranial osteoblasts from an SCS patient with a Y103X mutation inducing deletion of the Twist bHLH domain showed decreased Fgfr2 mRNA levels associated with decreased expression of Runx2, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC), markers of differentiated osteoblasts, compared with wild-type osteoblasts. Transfection with Twist or Runx2 expression vectors, but not with Runx2 mutant which impairs DNA binding, restored Fgfr2, Runx2, BSP and OC expression in Twist mutant osteoblasts. EMSA analysis of mutant osteoblast nuclear extracts showed reduced Runx2 binding to a target OSE2 site in the Fgfr2 promoter. ChIP analyses showed that both Twist and Runx2 in mutant osteoblast nuclear extracts bind to a specific region in the Fgfr2 promoter. Significantly, forced expression of Fgfr2 restored Runx2 and osteoblast marker genes, whereas a dominant-negative Fgfr2 further decreased Runx2 and downstream genes in Twist mutant osteoblasts, indicating that alteration of Fgfr2 results in downregulation of osteoblast genes in Twist mutant osteoblasts. We conclude that Twist haploinsufficiency downregulates Fgfr2 mRNA expression, which in turn reduces Runx2 and downstream osteoblast-specific genes in human calvarial osteoblasts. This provides genetic and biochemical evidence for a role of Fgfr2 in the altered osteoblast phenotype induced by Twist haploinsufficiency in the SCS.  (+info)

Gain-of-function amino acid substitutions drive positive selection of FGFR2 mutations in human spermatogonia. (39/135)

Despite the importance of mutation in genetics, there are virtually no experimental data on the occurrence of specific nucleotide substitutions in human gametes. C>G transversions at position 755 of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) cause Apert syndrome; this mutation, encoding the gain-of-function substitution Ser252Trp, occurs with a birth rate elevated 200- to 800-fold above background and originates exclusively from the unaffected father. We previously demonstrated high levels of both 755C>G and 755C>T FGFR2 mutations in human sperm and proposed that these particular mutations are enriched because the encoded proteins confer a selective advantage to spermatogonial cells. Here, we examine three corollaries of this hypothesis. First, we show that mutation levels at the adjacent FGFR2 nucleotides 752-754 are low, excluding any general increase in local mutation rate. Second, we present three instances of double-nucleotide changes involving 755C, expected to be extremely rare as chance events. Two of these double-nucleotide substitutions are shown, either by assessment of the pedigree or by direct analysis of sperm, to have arisen in sequential steps; the third (encoding Ser252Tyr) was predicted from structural considerations. Finally, we demonstrate that both major alternative spliceforms of FGFR2 (Fgfr2b and Fgfr2c) are expressed in rat spermatogonial stem cell lines. Taken together, these observations show that specific FGFR2 mutations attain high levels in sperm because they encode proteins with gain-of-function properties, favoring clonal expansion of mutant spermatogonial cells. Among FGFR2 mutations, those causing Apert syndrome may be especially prevalent because they enhance signaling by FGF ligands specific for each of the major expressed isoforms.  (+info)

Twist is required for establishment of the mouse coronal suture. (40/135)

Cranial sutures are the growth centres of the skull, enabling expansion of the skull to accommodate rapid growth of the brain. Haploinsufficiency of the human TWIST gene function causes the craniosynostosis syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), in which premature fusion of the coronal suture is a characteristic feature. Previous studies have indicated that Twist is expressed in the coronal suture during development, and therefore that it may play an important role in development and maintenance of the suture. The Twist-null mouse is lethal before the onset of osteogenesis, and the heterozygote exhibits coronal suture synostosis postnatally. In this study we investigated the function of Twist in the development of the mouse coronal suture, by inhibiting Twist synthesis using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides in calvarial organ culture. Decreased Twist production resulted in a narrow sutural space and fusion of bone domains within 48 h after the addition of the morpholino oligonucleotides. Proliferation activity in the sutural cells was decreased, and the expression of osteogenic marker genes such as Runx2 and Fgfr2 was up-regulated in the developing bone domain within 4 h. These results suggest that during establishment of the suture area, Twist is required for the regulation of sutural cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation.  (+info)