Is prior authorization of topical tretinoin for acne cost effective?
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prior authorization of topical tretinoin for acne is in the best interest of health insurers and, if so, to determine the optimal prior authorization age for topical tretinoin. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was performed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a sensitivity analysis using published data on the age distribution for topical tretinoin prescriptions for acne and nonacne indications to estimate the cost of topical tretinoin and the cost of performing prior authorizations as a function of the prior authorization age. RESULTS: A prior authorization age of 25 for topical tretinoin is not cost effective for health insurers. If prior authorization is required, an age threshold of 35 or older is most cost effective. The total cost of topical tretinoin (the sum of the drug costs plus the prior authorization costs) changes little with changes in the prior authorization age; if the prior authorization age is set too low, total costs increase (because the number of prior authorizations increase). CONCLUSIONS: Prior authorization for topical tretinoin is of no great benefit to insurers. As the prior authorization age decreases, the cost of requiring prior authorization increases. Eliminating prior authorization altogether would result in at most a small increase in costs and would be balanced by the benefits to both patients and physicians. (+info)
Acne: a review of immunologic and microbiologic factors.
Acne vulgaris is a self-limiting skin disorder seen primarily in adolescents, whose aetiology appears to be multifactorial. The four main aetiological factors are hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct, increased sebum production, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, and subsequently the production of inflammation. Considerable investigation has addressed the immunologic reaction to extracellular products produced by the acne-causing organism, P acnes. The immunologic response involves both humoral and cell-mediated pathways. Further research should clarify the role of complement, cytotoxins, and neutrophils in this acne-forming response. (+info)
Chloracne, goiter, arthritis, and anemia after polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: 14-year follow-Up of the Taiwan Yucheng cohort.
In 1979, a mass poisoning involving 2,000 people occurred in central Taiwan from ingestion of cooking oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). We studied the prevalence of medical conditions in the exposed individuals and in a neighborhood control group. Starting with a registry of the exposed individuals from 1983, we updated the addresses of exposed individuals and identified a control group matched for age, sex, and neighborhood in 1979. In 1993, individuals 30 years of age or older were interviewed by telephone. We obtained usable information from 795 exposed subjects and 693 control subjects. Lifetime prevalence of chloracne, abnormal nails, hyperkeratosis, skin allergy, goiter, headache, gum pigmentation, and broken teeth were observed more frequently in the PCB/PCDF-exposed men and women. The exposed women reported anemia 2. 3 times more frequently than controls. The exposed men reported arthritis and herniated intervertebral disks 4.1 and 2.9 times, respectively, more frequently than controls. There was no difference in reported prevalences of other medical conditions. We conclude that Taiwanese people exposed to high levels of PCBs and PCDFs reported more frequent medical problems, including skin diseases, goiter, anemia, and joint and spine diseases. (+info)
Topical therapy for acne.
Acne is a common problem in adolescents and young adults. The disorder is caused by abnormal desquamation of follicular epithelium that results in obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal. This obstruction leads to the formation of comedones, which can become inflamed because of overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes. Topical retinoids such as tretinoin or adapalene are effective in many patients with comedonal acne. Patients with inflammatory lesions benefit from treatment with benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid or topical antibiotics. Frequently, the use of comedonal and antibacterial agents is required. (+info)
Accutane (Roche Laboratories, Nutley, New Jersey), known by the generic name "isotretinoin," is a prescription oral medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat severe, recalcitrant nodular acne. It is also a known human teratogen that can cause multiple major malformations. Embryopathy associated with the mother's exposure to isotretinoin during the first trimester of pregnancy includes craniofacial, cardiac, thymic, and central nervous system malformations . In response to FDA recommendations, the manufacturer began a pregnancy-prevention program (PPP) in 1988 that included educational materials for physicians and patients and offered women reimbursement for contraceptive counseling by a physician. The PPP coordinators asked reproductive-aged women being treated with isotretinoin to enroll voluntarily in the Boston University Accutane Survey (BUAS). The total number of reproductive-aged women taking isotretinoin in the United States is unknown; however, 454,273 women enrolled in the BUAS from 1989 to October 1999. BUAS has estimated that 38%-40% of reproductive-aged women taking isotretinoin chose to enroll in the survey (BUAS, unpublished data, 1999). Although isotretinoin is contraindicated in pregnancy and has a package label warning users to avoid pregnancy while taking it, exposed pregnancies occur. Approximately 900 pregnancies occurred among BUAS enrollees during 1989-1998 (BUAS, unpublished data, 1999). Roche Laboratories began direct-to-consumer print advertisements in 1996, added television and radio advertisements to selected cities in 1997, and expanded the campaign to the entire United States in 1998. (+info)
Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome maps to chromosome 15q.
Pyoderma gangrenosum, cystic acne, and aseptic arthritis are clinically distinct disorders within the broad class of inflammatory diseases. Although this triad of symptoms is rarely observed in a single patient, a three-generation kindred with autosomal-dominant transmission of these three disorders has been reported as "PAPA syndrome" (MIM 604416). We report mapping of a disease locus for familial pyoderma gangrenosum-acne-arthritis to the long arm of chromosome 15 (maximum two-point LOD score, 5.83; recombination fraction [straight theta] 0 at locus D15S206). Under the assumption of complete penetrance, haplotype analysis of recombination events defined a disease interval of 10 cM, between D15S1023 and D15S979. Successful identification of a single disease locus for this syndrome suggests that these clinically distinct disorders may share a genetic etiology. These data further indicate the role of genes outside the major histocompatibility locus in inflammatory disease. (+info)
Comedogenicity of squalene monohydroperoxide in the skin after topical application.
The comedogenicity of squalene peroxides was examined on the rabbit ear skin after topical application of squalene-monohydroperoxide (Sq-OOH), the initial product when squalene was irradiated with UV-A. Since comedogenic products from UV-irradiated squalene were extracted with methanol solution, we isolated Sq-OOH by reverse-phased HPLC with a methanol mobile phase solvent. The degree of comedogenic reaction induced by Sq-OOH was higher than that of well-known comedogenic cosmetic ingredients. Unlike two other mono-peroxides, tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene-mono-hydroperoxide, Sq-OOH induced comedo-formation in the rabbit ear skin. However, the comedogenicity of reduced Sq-OOH, squalene-hydroxide (Sq-OH) and squalene itself was lower than that of Sq-OOH. These results indicate that Sq-OOH is a potent comedogenic mono-hydroperoxide chemical to rabbit skin. (+info)
A case report of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis syndrome presenting with spondylodiscitis.
SAPHO syndrome stands for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis. The common site of skeletal lesions in this syndrome is the sternocostoclavicular area. Spondylodiscitis is rarely described in published studies. In general, skin lesions develop before the onset of skeletal lesions. We report a case of SAPHO syndrome in which spondylodiscitis developed more than 1 year before the onset of pustulosis. (+info)