Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus.
Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating. (+info)
Endometrial lysosomal enzyme activity in normal cycling endometrium.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible role of four lysosomal enzymes in endometrial function and remodelling during the normal menstrual cycle by fluorimetric measurement (acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase). A prospective study was conducted of 45 endometrial biopsies obtained from women with normal menstrual cycles. Activity of all four enzymes was identified in human endometrium. Activity of acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was relatively high, whilst that of alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-D-mannosidase was low. There was no significant change in the activity of any of the four enzymes from the proliferative to the secretory phase of the cycle. This study suggests that the activity of these enzymes remains constant throughout a major portion of the normal cycle. (+info)
Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages.
Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis. (+info)
An activation-specific role for transcription factor TFIIB in vivo.
A yeast mutant was isolated encoding a single amino acid substitution [serine-53 --> proline (S53P)] in transcription factor TFIIB that impairs activation of the PHO5 gene in response to phosphate starvation. This effect is activation-specific because S53P did not affect the uninduced level of PHO5 expression, yet is not specific to PHO5 because Adr1-mediated activation of the ADH2 gene also was impaired by S53P. Pho4, the principal activator of PHO5, directly interacted with TFIIB in vitro, and this interaction was impaired by the S53P replacement. Furthermore, Pho4 induced a conformational change in TFIIB, detected by enhanced sensitivity to V8 protease. The S53P replacement also impaired activation of a lexA(op)-lacZ reporter by a LexA fusion protein to the activation domain of Adr1, thereby indicating that the transcriptional effect on ADH2 expression is specific to the activation function of Adr1. These results define an activation-specific role for TFIIB in vivo and suggest that certain activators induce a conformational change in TFIIB as part of their mechanism of transcriptional stimulation. (+info)
A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.
Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. (+info)
An in vitro system recapitulates chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 is an excellent system with which to study regulated changes in chromatin structure. The PHO5 promoter is packaged into four positioned nucleosomes under repressing conditions; upon induction, the structure of these nucleosomes is altered such that the promoter DNA becomes accessible to nucleases. We report here the development and characterization of an in vitro system in which partially purified PHO5 minichromosomes undergo promoter chromatin remodeling. Several hallmarks of the PHO5 chromatin transition in vivo were reproduced in this system. Chromatin remodeling of PHO5 minichromosomes required the transcription factors Pho4 and Pho2, was localized to the promoter region of PHO5, and was independent of the chromatin-remodeling complex Swi-Snf. In vitro chromatin remodeling also required the addition of fractionated nuclear extract and hydrolyzable ATP. This in vitro system should serve as a useful tool for identifying the components required for this reaction and for elucidating the mechanism by which the PHO5 promoter chromatin structure is changed. (+info)
Laser induced phagocytosis in the pigment epithelium of the Hunter dystrophic rat.
The retinae of 14-day-old Hunter dystrophic rats have been subjected to low-energy irradiation by a pulsed ruby laser. Fifteen days after exposure, pigment epithelial cells had proliferated and repopulated the irradiated areas. In all such areas the subretinal photoreceptor debris had been reduced or lost. (+info)
The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.
Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. (+info)