(1/31) DPPH radical scavengers from dried leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare).
1,1-Dipehnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were found in the extract of dried leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare). The water-soluble active ingredients were isolated, and their structures were determined to be 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl 4-O-methylprotocatechuate by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral analyses, and by NOE experiments. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of these compounds were compared with those of rutin, quercetin and rosmarinic acid at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) M. The scavenging activity of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate was almost the same as that of quercetin and rosmarinic acid, but that of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybennzyl 4-O-methylprotocatechuate was less than that of quercetin, rosmarinic acid and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate. The amount of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate was estimated to be 3.8 mg/1 g of dried leaves by an HPLC analysis. (+info)
(2/31) Triterpenic derivatives of Achillea alexandri-regis BORNM. & RUDSKI.
Investigation of the aerial parts of Achillea alexandri-regis led to the identification of 19 chemical constituents: twelve 3-O-fatty acid esters of triterpene alcohols arnidiol (1-4), maniladiol (5-8) and 16beta-hydroxylupeol (9-12), alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, 3,4-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, cinnamic acid, pinoresinol-beta-D-glucoside and rutin. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 8, 11 and 12 are new natural products. The structures of all compounds have been elucidated on the basis of their spectral and chemical data. (+info)
(3/31) Comparative radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract and fractions from Achillea ligustica ALL.
The yield of methanolic extract and total phenol and non polar content of flowered parts from Achillea ligustica ALL. are reported. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fraction showed that the triterpene moretenol was the major constituent (17.228%) followed by stigmast-6-en-3beta-ol, veridiflorol and beta-amyrin (7.524%, 5.078% 4.470%, respectively). The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions from A. ligustica were carried out using two different in vitro assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and lipid peroxidation of liposomes assay. Methanolic extract showed higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH (IC50 of 50 microg/ml). This activity is probably due to the phenolic fraction which shown an IC50 value of 22 microg/ml. A different result was obtained from the methanolic extract on the lipid peroxidation of liposomes (IC50 of 416 microg/ml). The alpha-amylase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate antidiabetic activity. The methanolic extract showed weak activity (28.18% at 1 mg/ml) while the n-hexane fraction showed 74.96% inhibition at 250 microg/ml. (+info)
(4/31) Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural populations of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae).
Polyploidy is a major mechanism of speciation and adaptation, yet little is known about the origins of polyploids in natural species. I investigated gametic nonreduction and neopolyploid formation in natural tetraploid populations of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), an autopolyploid complex consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes. Cytological analyses of tetraploid populations revealed the occurrence of reduced (n=2x) as well as unreduced 'big' (2n=4x) and 'jumbo' (4n=8x) pollen grains, which were clearly distinguished by size. Production of unreduced pollen was monitored in two tetraploid populations in 1997 and 1998. Mean population-level frequencies of unreduced pollen ranged from 0.030 to 0.538%, with as few as one-third and as many as one-half of sampled plants producing unreduced grains. Eight individuals were found to produce >1% unreduced pollen, with highest observed frequencies of 7.0, 13.2 and 15.8%. Experimental crosses using high unreduced pollen producers as male parents generated viable seeds. However, the frequency of neohexaploids in the progeny of experimental crosses (0.388%) was similar to that observed in progeny of randomly selected, open-pollinated control parents (0.465%). These results suggest that unreduced eggs are the most likely source of new polyploids. In spite of the inefficiency of unreduced pollen in unilateral sexual polyploidization, the overall rate of neohexaploid formation (one in 233) was several orders of magnitude greater than estimates of genic mutation rates. (+info)
(5/31) Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.
The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema. (+info)
(6/31) Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele essential oils.
The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL). (+info)
(7/31) Variability of phenolic compounds in flowers of Achillea millefolium wild populations in Lithuania.
Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g. (+info)
(8/31) Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice.
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Many investigations are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for leishmaniasis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of herbal extracts of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) and Achillea millefolium (Yarrow), propolis hydroalcoholic extract and systemic glucantime against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: A total of 45 mice were randomised into five groups each including nine mice. They were treated with pure ethanol 70 degrees, systemic glucantime, Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract, Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract and propolis hydroalcoholic extract for six weeks. The statistical tests including student t-test were used for analysis. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, ver 13.00. RESULTS: Mean of ulcer size reduction were -17.66, -22.57, 43.29, 36.09 and 43.77% for the alcohol, glucantime, yarrow, thyme and propolis groups, respectively. The results were suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts were significantly more effective in reduction of ulcer size as compared with glucantime (p = 0.006, 0.002 and 0.008, respectively). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our results are suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis extracts are effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Regarding these results, we suggest that efficacy of these extracts alone or in combination are evaluated against human cutaneous leishmaniasis as a randomized clinical trial. (+info)