Multi-step analysis as a tool for kinetic parameter estimation and mechanism discrimination in the reaction between tight-binding fasciculin 2 and electric eel acetylcholinesterase. (9/38)

The mechanism of action of a potent peptidic inhibitor fasciculin 2 (Fas2) on electric eel acetylcholinesterase (eleelAChE) has been examined in a three-level analysis. Classical steps included equilibration experiments for the evaluation of high affinity binding constant and the existence of residual hydrolytic activity in a solution of completely Fas2 saturated enzyme. The two rate constants for the association (k(on)) and the dissociation (k(off)) of Fas2 with free enzyme were determined by the time course of residual enzyme activity measurements. In the third step, with a nonclassical progress curve analysis, we found that the Fas2-enzyme complex exhibited hydrolytic activity in a butyrylcholinesterase-like kinetics. The switch appears to be a consequence of steric obstruction, but also the consequence of subtle rapid conformational changes around catalytic site, upon slow single-step binding of large Fas2 molecule at the peripheral site. An unusual unilateral effect of bound Fas2 is reflected by acylation-independent association and dissociation rates and might indeed be due to inability of small acylation agent to influence the binding of a large opponent.  (+info)

Dibucaine inhibition of serum cholinesterase. (10/38)

The dibucaine number (DN) was determined for serum cholinesterase (EC, SChE) in plasma samples. The ones with a DN of 79-82 were used, because they had the "usual" SChE variant. The enzyme was assayed colorimetrically by the reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid] (DTNB) with the free sulfhydryl groups of thiocholine that were produced by the enzyme reaction with butrylthiocholine (BuTch) or acetylthiocholine (AcTch) substrates, and measured at 412 nm. Dibucaine, a quaternary ammonium compound, inhibited SChE to a minimum within 2 min in a reversible manner. The inhibition was very potent. It had an IC(50) of 5.3 microM with BuTch or 3.8 microM with AcTch. The inhibition was competitive with respect to BuTch with a K(i) of 1.3 microM and a linear-mixed type (competitive/noncompetitive) with respect to AcTch with inhibition constants, K(i) and K(I) of 0.66 and 2.5 microM, respectively. Dibucaine possesses a butoxy side chain that is similar to the butryl group of BuTch and longer by an ethylene group from AcTch. This may account for the difference in inhibition behavior. It may also suggest the existence of an additional binding site, other than the anionic binding site, and of a hydrophobic nature.  (+info)

The reactant state for substrate-activated turnover of acetylthiocholine by butyrylcholinesterase is a tetrahedral intermediate. (11/38)

Secondary beta-deuterium kinetic isotope effects have been measured as a function of substrate concentration for recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetyl-L3-thiocholine (L = 1H or 2H). The isotope effect on V/K is inverse, D3V/K = 0.93 +/- 0.03, which is consistent with conversion of the sp2 hybridized carbonyl carbon of the scissile ester bond of the E + A reactant state to a quasi-tetrahedral structure in the acylation transition state. In contrast, the isotope effect on Vmax under conditions of substrate activation is markedly normal, D3(betaVmax) = 1.29 +/- 0.06, an observation that is consistent with accumulation of a tetrahedral intermediate as the reactant state for catalytic turnover. Generally, tetrahedral intermediates for nonenzymatic ester hydrolyses are high-energy steady-state intermediates. Apparently, butyrylcholinesterase displays an unusual ability to stabilize such intermediates. Hence, the catalytic power of cholinesterases can largely be understood in terms of their ability to stabilize tetrahedral intermediates in the multistep reaction mechanism.  (+info)

para- and ortho-Pyridinium aldoximes in reaction with acetylthiocholine. (12/38)

In the oximolysis reaction para-aldoximes K027 and TMB-4 react faster with ATCh than ortho-aldoximes HI-6 and K033. The reaction rate constants at 25 degrees C were 22 M(-1) min(-1) for HI-6 and K033, 230 M(-1) min(-1) for TMB-4 and 306 M(-1) min(-1) for K027. Semi-empirical calculations showed that differences in rates do not origin from different electron density on the oxygen of the oxime group, but can be explained by the steric hindrance of the oxime group within the molecule. Thermodynamic parameters, DeltaG#, DeltaH# and DeltaS#, were also determined for oximolysis reaction.  (+info)

The effect of engineered disulfide bonds on the stability of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase. (13/38)

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase is irreversibly inhibited by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides allowing its use in biosensors for detection of these insecticides. Drosophila acetylcholinesterase is the most sensitive enzyme known and has been improved by in vitro mutagenesis. However, its stability has to be improved for extensive utilization. RESULTS: To create a disulfide bond that could increase the stability of the Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, we selected seven positions taking into account first the distance between Cbeta of two residues, in which newly introduced cysteines will form the new disulfide bond and second the conservation of the residues in the cholinesterase family. Most disulfide bonds tested did not increase and even decreased the stability of the protein. However, one engineered disulfide bridge, I327C/D375C showed significant stability increase toward denaturation by temperature (170 fold at 50 degrees C), urea, organic solvent and provided resistance to protease degradation. The new disulfide bridge links the N-terminal domain (first 356 aa) to the C-terminal domain. The quantities produced by this mutant were the same as in wild-type flies. CONCLUSION: Addition of a disulfide bridge may either stabilize or unstabilize proteins. One bond out of the 7 tested provided significant stabilisation.  (+info)

Structural insights into substrate traffic and inhibition in acetylcholinesterase. (14/38)

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates nerve-impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Substrate traffic in AChE involves at least two binding sites, the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, which have been suggested to be allosterically related and involved in substrate inhibition. Here, we present the crystal structures of Torpedo californica AChE complexed with the substrate acetylthiocholine, the product thiocholine and a nonhydrolysable substrate analogue. These structures provide a series of static snapshots of the substrate en route to the active site and identify, for the first time, binding of substrate and product at both the peripheral and active sites. Furthermore, they provide structural insight into substrate inhibition in AChE at two different substrate concentrations. Our structural data indicate that substrate inhibition at moderate substrate concentration is due to choline exit being hindered by a substrate molecule bound at the peripheral site. At the higher concentration, substrate inhibition arises from prevention of exit of acetate due to binding of two substrate molecules within the active-site gorge.  (+info)

Mutant of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase with low affinity and low hydrolase activity toward organophosphorus esters. (15/38)

Enzymes hydrolysing highly toxic organophosphate esters (OPs) are promising alternatives to pharmacological countermeasures against OPs poisoning. Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase (BfAChE) was engineered to acquire organophosphate hydrolase (OPase) activity by reproducing the features of the human butyrylcholinesterase G117H mutant, the first mutant designed to hydrolyse OPs. The modification consisted of a triple mutation on the (122)GFYS(125) peptide segment, resulting in (122)HFQT(125). This substitution introduced a nucleophilic histidine above the oxyanion hole, and made space in that region. The mutant did not show inhibition by excess acetylthiocholine up to 80 mM. The k(cat)/K(m) ratio with acetylthiocholine was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of wild-type AChE. Interestingly, due to low affinity, the G122H/Y124Q/S125T mutant was resistant to sub-millimolar concentrations of OPs. Moreover, it had hydrolysing activity with paraoxon, echothiophate, and diisopropyl phosphofluoridate (DFP). DFP was characterised as a slow-binding substrate. This mutant is the first mutant of AChE capable of hydrolysing organophosphates. However, the overall OPase efficiency was greatly decreased compared to G117H butyrylcholinesterase.  (+info)

Concentration-dependent binding of chlorpyrifos oxon to acetylcholinesterase. (16/38)

The organophosphorus insecticides have been known for many years to cause cholinergic crisis in humans as a result of the inhibition of the critical enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The interactions of the activated, toxic insecticide metabolites (termed oxons) with acetylcholinesterase have been studied extensively for decades. However, more recent studies have suggested that the interactions of certain anticholinesterase organophosphates with acetylcholinesterase are more complex than previously thought since their inhibitory capacity has been noted to change as a function of inhibitor concentration. In the present report, chlorpyrifos oxon (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphate) was incubated with human recombinant acetylcholinesterase in the presence of p-nitrophenyl acetate in order to better characterize kinetically the interactions of this oxon with enzyme. Determination of the dissociation constant, Kd, and the phophorylation rate constant, k2, for chlorpyrifos oxon with a range of oxon and p-nitrophenyl acetate concentrations revealed that Kd, but not k2, changed as a function of oxon concentration. Changes in p-nitrophenyl acetate concentrations did not alter these same kinetic parameters. The inhibitory capacity of chlorpyrifos oxon, as measured by ki (k2/Kd), was also affected as a result of the concentration-dependent alterations in binding affinity. These results suggest that the concentration-dependent interactions of chlorpyrifos oxon with acetylcholinesterase resulted from a different mechanism than the concentration-dependent interactions of acetylthiocholine. In the latter case, substrate bound to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase has been shown to reduce enzyme activity by blocking the release of the product thiocholine from the active site gorge. With chlorpyrifos oxon, the rate of release of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol is irrelevant since the active site is not available to interact with other oxon molecules after phosphorylation of Ser-203 has occurred.  (+info)