Binding of substrate analogs to hen egg-white lysozyme with an ester linkage between Glu 35 and Trp 108. (17/1610)

The interactions of the substrate analogs beta-methyl-GlcNAc, (GlcNAc)2, and (GlcNAc)3 with hen egg-white lysozyme [EC 3.2.1.17] in which an ester linkage had been formed between Glu 35 and Trp 108 (108 ester lysozyme), were studied by the circular dichroic and fluorescence techniques, and were compared with those for intact lysozyme. The binding constants of beta-methyl-GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)2 to 108 ester lysozyme were essentially the same as those for intact lysozyme in the pH range of 1 to 5. Above pH 5, the binding constants of these saccharides to 108 ester lysozyme did not change with pH, while the binding constants to intact lysozyme decreased. This indicates that Glu 35 (pK 6.0 in intact lysozyme) participates in the binding of these saccharides. The extent and direction of the pK shifts of Asp 52 (pK 3.5), Asp 48 (pK 4.4), and Asp 66 (pK 1.3) observed when beta-methyl-GlcNAc is bound to 108 ester lysozyme were the same as those for intact lysozyme. The participation of Asp 101 and Asp 66 in the binding of (GlcNAc)2 to 108 ester lysozyme was also the same as that for intact lysozyme. These findings indicate that the conformations of subsites B and C are not changed by the formation of the ester linkage. On the other hand, the binding constants of (GlcNAc)3 to 108 ester lysozyme were higher than those for intact lysozyme at all pH values studied. This result is interpreted in terms of an increase in the affinity for a GlcNAc residue of subsite D, which is situated near the esterified Glu 35.  (+info)

The tumor suppressor EXT-like gene EXTL2 encodes an alpha1, 4-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine to the common glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region. The key enzyme for the chain initiation of heparan sulfate. (18/1610)

We previously demonstrated a unique alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that transferred N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to the tetrasaccharide-serine, GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-Ser (GlcA represents glucuronic acid), derived from the common glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region, through an alpha1,4-linkage. In this study, we purified the enzyme from the serum-free culture medium of a human sarcoma cell line. Peptide sequence analysis of the purified enzyme revealed 100% identity to the multiple exostoses-like gene EXTL2/EXTR2, a member of the hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) gene family of tumor suppressors. The expression of a soluble recombinant form of the protein produced an active enzyme, which transferred alpha-GalNAc from UDP-[3H]GalNAc to various acceptor substrates including GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-Ser. Interestingly, the enzyme also catalyzed the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-[3H]GlcNAc to GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-O-naphthalenemethanol, which was the acceptor substrate for the previously described GlcNAc transferase I involved in the biosynthetic initiation of heparan sulfate. The GlcNAc transferase reaction product was sensitive to the action of heparitinase I, establishing the identity of the enzyme to be alpha1, 4-GlcNAc transferase. These results altogether indicate that EXTL2/EXTR2 encodes the alpha1,4-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase that transfers GalNAc/GlcNAc to the tetrasaccharide representing the common glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region and that is most likely the critical enzyme that determines and initiates the heparin/heparan sulfate synthesis, separating it from the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate synthesis.  (+info)

Segregation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthetic reactions in a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum. (19/1610)

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the sequential addition of monosaccharides, fatty acid, and phosphoethanolamine(s) to phosphatidylinositol (PI). While attempting to establish a mammalian cell-free system for GPI biosynthesis, we found that the assembly of mannosylated GPI species was impaired when purified ER preparations were substituted for unfractionated cell lysates as the enzyme source. To explore this problem we analyzed the distribution of the various GPI biosynthetic reactions in subcellular fractions prepared from homogenates of mammalian cells. The results indicate the following: (i) the initial reaction of GPI assembly, i.e. the transfer of GlcNAc to PI to form GlcNAc-PI, is uniformly distributed in the ER; (ii) the second step of the pathway, i.e. de-N-acetylation of GlcNAc-PI to yield GlcN-PI, is largely confined to a subcompartment of the ER that appears to be associated with mitochondria; (iii) the mitochondria-associated ER subcompartment is enriched in enzymatic activities involved in the conversion of GlcN-PI to H5 (a singly mannosylated GPI structure containing one phosphoethanolamine side chain; and (iv) the mitochondria-associated ER subcompartment, unlike bulk ER, is capable of the de novo synthesis of H5 from UDP-GlcNAc and PI. The confinement of these GPI biosynthetic reactions to a domain of the ER provides another example of the compositional and functional heterogeneity of the ER. The implications of these findings for GPI assembly are discussed.  (+info)

The neoglycoprotein mannose-bovine serum albumin, but not progesterone, activates T-type calcium channels in human spermatozoa. (20/1610)

The neoglycoproteins alpha-D-mannose-bovine serum albumin (mannose-BSA) and N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine-BSA (glucNAc-BSA) were shown to rapidly increase intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in human spermatozoa. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by these neoglycoproteins accounts for the known ability of these compounds to induce the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Our data support the hypothesis that mannose-BSA, but not progesterone, activates T-type Ca2+ channels in human spermatozoa for the following reasons: (i) the capacity of mannose-BSA to increase [Ca2+]i was inhibited by the specific T-type Ca2+ channel blocker mibefradil (IC50 = 10(-6) mol/l) while progesterone was not inhibited by 10(-5) M mibefradil; (ii) the effect of mannose-BSA to elevate [Ca2+]i was inhibited more potently by Ni2+ (IC50 = 0.1 mmol/l) than Cd2+ (IC50 = 0.5 mmol/l), whereas the effect of progesterone to elevate [Ca2+]i was inhibited equally by Ni2+ and Cd2+ (IC50 = 0.25 mmol/l); (iii) the effects of mannose-BSA and progesterone to increase [Ca2+]i were greater than additive. These data support the idea that mannose-BSA and progesterone were activating distinct Ca2+ channels, one of which was a T-type Ca2+ channel activated by mannose-BSA whereas the Ca2+ channel that was activated by progesterone has yet to be defined at the molecular level.  (+info)

Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria. (21/1610)

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of arylsulphatase A occurs through multiple interactions with the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase proximal and distal to its retrieval site by the KDEL receptor. (22/1610)

Phosphorylation of oligosaccharides of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulphatase A (ASA), which accumulate in the secretions of cells that mis-sort most of the newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes due to a deficiency of mannose 6-phosphate receptors, was found to be site specific. ASA residing within the secretory route of these cells contains about one third of the incorporated [2-3H]mannose in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides carrying two phosphate groups are almost 2-fold less frequent than those with one phosphate group and only a few of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Addition of a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) retention signal prolongs the residence time of ASA within the secretory route 6-fold, but does not result in more efficient phosphorylation. In contrast, more than 90% of the [2-3H]mannose incorporated into secreted ASA (with or without a KDEL retention signal) is present in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Those with two phosphate groups are almost twice as frequent as those with one phosphate group and most of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Thus, ASA receives N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate groups in a sequential manner at two or more sites located within the secretory route proximal and distal to the site where ASA is retrieved by the KDEL receptor, i.e. proximal to the trans-Golgi. At each of these sites up to two N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate groups can be added to a single oligosaccharide. Of several drugs known to inhibit transit of ASA through the secretory route only the ionophore monensin had a major inhibitory effect on phosphorylation, uncovering and sialylation.  (+info)

Targeted delivery of oligodeoxynucleotides to parenchymal liver cells in vivo. (23/1610)

Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) hold great promise for correcting the biosynthesis of clinically relevant proteins. The potential of ODNs for modulating liver-specific genes might be increased by preventing untimely elimination and by improving the local bioavailability of ODNs in the target tissue. In the present study we have assessed whether the local ODN concentration can be enhanced by the targeted delivery of ODNs through conjugation to a ligand for the parenchymal liver cell-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor. A capped ODN (miscellaneous 20-mer sequence) was derivatized with a ligand with high affinity for this receptor, N2-[N2-(N2,N6-bis{N-[p-(beta-d-galactopyranosyloxy) anilino] thiocarbamyl}-L-lysyl)-N6-(N-{p-[beta-D -galactopyranosyloxy] anilino} thiocarbamyl)-L-lysyl]-N6-[N- (p-{beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy}anilino)thiocarbamyl]-L-lysine (L3G4) (Kd 6.5+/-0.2 nM, mean+/-S.D.). Both the uptake studies in vitro and the confocal laser scan microscopy studies demonstrated that L3G4-ODN was far more efficiently bound to and taken up by parenchymal liver cells than underivatized ODN. Studies in vivo in rats showed that hepatic uptake could be greatly enhanced from 19+/-1% to 77+/-6% of the injected dose after glycoconjugation. Importantly, specific ODN accumulation of ODN into parenchymal liver cells was improved almost 60-fold after derivatization with L3G4, and could be attributed to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In conclusion, the scavenger receptor-mediated elimination pathway for miscellaneous ODN sequences can be circumvented by direct conjugation to a synthetic tag for the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In this manner a crucial requisite is met towards the application of ODNs in vivo to modulate the biosynthesis of parenchymal liver cell-specific genes such as those for apolipoprotein (a), cholesterol ester transfer protein and viral proteins.  (+info)

Exposure of N-acetylglucosamine decreases early in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in thymocytes, demonstrated by flow cytometry using wheat germ agglutinin and pokeweed mitogen. (24/1610)

In the present paper we describe changes in the exposure of oligosaccharides containing N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-NAc) during apoptosis of mouse thymocytes. The structures containing this sugar were probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled lectins, wheat germ agglutinin and pokeweed mitogen in flow cytometric assays. Both lectins bind to structures containing Glc-NAc. The present report describes experiments in which two different dual-staining techniques were used to simultaneously identify apoptotic cells and measure their lectin exposure. In these experiments, we observed an early and substantial decrease in the exposure of Glc-NAc-containing structures associated with the onset of apoptosis, before or simultaneously with phosphatidylserine exposure. This was followed by an increase in the exposure of Glc-NAc-containing structures after longer incubation times, when a large proportion of cells was demonstrated to have fragmented DNA. These results provide evidence for major changes in the structure of plasma membrane oligosaccharides during apoptosis. The initial decrease may be a by-product of the hydrolysis of glycosphingolipids to yield ceramide for apoptotic signalling or a deliberate process related to the removal of cell adhesion signalling structures, associated with the separation of the apoptotic cell from its neighbours. The later increase in Glc-NAc-containing structures may be the result of the incorporation of internal membranes into the plasma membrane or a deliberate production of prophagocytic signals by a still-functioning Golgi apparatus.  (+info)