Arachidonic acid, but not its metabolites, is essential for FcgammaR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.
Since arachidonic acid (AA) production by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is essential for the Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated respiratory burst and phagocytosis of opsonized erythrocytes by monocytes and macrophages, we focused in this study on the role of AA and its metabolites in the FcgammaR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes. The results revealed that the PLA2 inhibitors, but not inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase, markedly suppressed the FcgammaR-mediated killing process. The production of O-2 by monocytes upon FcgammaR cross-linking was inhibited by 4-bromophenacyl bromide in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating that inhibition of PLA2 activity impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes, which could be partially restored by addition of exogenous AA and docosahexaenoic acid, but not myristic acid. These polyunsaturated fatty acids, but not myristic acid, stimulated the intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes, although not as effectively as FcgammaR cross-linking. Furthermore, FcgammaR cross-linking stimulated the release of AA from monocytes. Studies with selective inhibitors revealed that the FcgammaR-mediated activation of PLA2 is dependent on Ca2+ and tyrosine kinase activity. Together these results indicate a key role for PLA2/AA, but not its major metabolites, in mediating the FcgammaR-stimulated intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes. (+info)
Protein kinase Cdelta mediates neurogenic but not mitogenic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in neuronal cells.
In several neuronal cell systems, fibroblast-derived growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) act as neurogenic agents, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts as a mitogen. The mechanisms responsible for these different cellular fates are unclear. We report here that although FGF, NGF, and EGF all activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK]) in rat hippocampal (H19-7) and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, the activation of ERK by the neurogenic agents FGF and NGF is dependent upon protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), whereas ERK activation in response to the mitogenic EGF is independent of PKCdelta. Antisense PKCdelta oligonucleotides or the PKCdelta-specific inhibitor rottlerin inhibited FGF- and NGF-induced, but not EGF-induced, ERK activation. In contrast, EGF-induced ERK activation was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which had no effect upon FGF-induced ERK activation. Rottlerin also inhibited the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in response to activated Raf, but had no effect upon c-Raf activity or ERK activation by activated MEK. These results indicate that PKCdelta functions either downstream from or in parallel with c-Raf, but upstream of MEK. Inhibition of PKCdelta also blocked neurite outgrowth induced by FGF and NGF in PC12 cells and by activated Raf in H19-7 cells, indicating a role for PKCdelta in the neurogenic effects of FGF, NGF, and Raf. Interestingly, the PKCdelta requirement is apparently cell type specific, since FGF-induced ERK activation was independent of PKCdelta in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts, in which FGF is a mitogen. These data demonstrate that PKCdelta contributes to growth factor specificity and response in neuronal cells and may also promote cell-type-specific differences in growth factor signaling. (+info)
Translocation of protein kinase Cepsilon and protein kinase Cdelta to membrane is required for ultraviolet B-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and apoptosis.
UV-induced signal transduction may be involved in tumor promotion and induction of apoptosis. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in UVB-induced signal transduction is not well understood. This study showed that UVB markedly induced translocation of membrane-associated PKCepsilon and PKCdelta, but not PKCalpha, from cytosol to membrane. Dominant negative mutant (DNM) PKCepsilon or PKCdelta inhibited UVB-induced translocation of PKCepsilon and PKCdelta, respectively. UVB-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (Erks) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) was strongly inhibited by DNM PKCepsilon and PKCdelta, whereas the DNM of PKCalpha was less effective on the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Erks and JNKs. Among the PKC inhibitors used only rottlerin, a selective inhibitor of PKCdelta, markedly inhibited the UVB-induced activation of Erks and JNKs, but not p38 kinases. Safingol, a selective inhibitor for PKCalpha, did not show any inhibitory effect on UVB-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. GF109203X is a stronger inhibitor of classical PKC than novel PKC. Lower concentrations of GF109203X (<10 microM) had no effect on UVB-induced activation of Erks or JNKs. However, at higher concentrations (over 20 microM), GF109203X inhibited UVB-induced activation of JNKs, Erks, and even p38 kinases. Meanwhile, rottlerin and GF109203X markedly inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis of JB6 cells, whereas safingol had little inhibitory effect. DNM-Erk2 cells and PD98059, a selective inhibitor for mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 that directly activates Erks, inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis. DNM-JNK1 cells also blocked UVB-induced apoptosis, whereas SB202190, a specific inhibitor for p38 kinases, did not produce the inhibitory effect. These data demonstrate that PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha, mediate UVB-induced signal transduction and apoptosis in JB6 cells through activation of Erks and JNKs. (+info)
Odor response properties of rat olfactory receptor neurons.
Molecular biology studies of olfaction have identified a multigene family of molecular receptors that are likely to be involved in odor transduction mechanisms. However, because previous functional data on peripheral coding were mainly collected from inferior vertebrates, it has been difficult to document the degree of specificity of odor interaction mechanisms. As a matter of fact, studies of the functional expression of olfactory receptors have not demonstrated the low or high specificity of olfactory receptors. In this study, the selectivity of olfactory receptor neurons was investigated in the rat at the cellular level under physiological conditions by unitary extracellular recordings. Individual olfactory receptor neurons were broadly responsive to qualitatively distinct odor compounds. We conclude that peripheral coding is based on activated arrays of olfactory receptor cells with overlapping tuning profiles. (+info)
Protein kinase C delta is essential for etoposide-induced apoptosis in salivary gland acinar cells.
We have previously shown that parotid C5 salivary acinar cells undergo apoptosis in response to etoposide treatment as indicated by alterations in cell morphology, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inactivation of extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2. Here we report that apoptosis results in the caspase-dependent cleavage of protein kinase C-delta (PKCdelta) to a 40-kDa fragment, the appearance of which correlates with a 9-fold increase in PKCdelta activity. To understand the function of activated PKCdelta in apoptosis, we have used the PKCdelta-specific inhibitor, rottlerin. Pretreatment of parotid C5 cells with rottlerin prior to the addition of etoposide blocks the appearance of the apoptotic morphology, the sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inactivation of extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2. Inhibition of PKCdelta also partially inhibits caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblot analysis shows that the PKCdelta cleavage product does not accumulate in parotid C5 cells treated with rottlerin and etoposide together, suggesting that the catalytic activity of PKCdelta may be required for cleavage. PKCalpha and PKCbeta1 activities also increase during etoposide-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of these two isoforms with Go6976 slightly suppresses the apoptotic morphology, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation, but has no effect on the sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase or inactivation of extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2. These data demonstrate that activation of PKCdelta is an integral and essential part of the apoptotic program in parotid C5 cells and that specific activated isoforms of PKC may have distinct functions in cell death. (+info)
Dual efficacy of lamivudine treatment in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected persons in a randomized, controlled study (CAESAR). The CAESAR Coordinating Committee.
The efficacy and safety of lamivudine in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined in the CAESAR study, a randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the addition of lamivudine (150 mg 2x/day) or lamivudine (150 mg 2x/day) plus loviride (100 mg 3x/day) to zidovudine-containing background antiretroviral treatment. Baseline hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) results were available for 1790 study subjects, of whom 122 (6.8%) tested positive. Retrospective analyses for serial HBV DNA, HBsAg, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were performed on stored sera from 118 HBsAg-positive subjects. HBV DNA and HBeAg were present in 83% and 63%, respectively. At weeks 12 and 52, median log10 HBV DNA change was -2.0 and -2.7, respectively, in the lamivudine arms, compared with no reduction among placebo recipients (P<.001). A trend to lower alanine transferase level, and delayed progression of HIV-1 disease (relative hazard, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.80) were also seen in the lamivudine arms, compared with the placebo group. (+info)
Apocynin improves diaphragmatic function after endotoxin administration.
Free radicals are known to play an important role in modulating the development of respiratory muscle dysfunction during sepsis. Moreover, neutrophil numbers increase in the diaphragm after endotoxin administration. Whether or not superoxide derived from infiltrating white blood cells contributes to muscle dysfunction during sepsis is, however, unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of apocynin, an inhibitor of the superoxide-generating neutrophil NADPH complex, on endotoxin-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. We studied groups of rats given saline, endotoxin, apocynin, or both endotoxin and apocynin. Animals were killed 18 h after injection, a portion of the diaphragm was used to assess force generation, and the remaining diaphragm was used for determination of 4-hydroxynonenal (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and nitrotyrosine levels (a marker of free radical-mediated protein modification). We found that endotoxin reduced diaphragm force generation and that apocynin partially prevented this decrease [e.g., force in response to 20 Hz was 23 +/- 1 (SE), 12 +/- 2, 23 +/- 1, and 19 +/- 1 N/cm(2), respectively, for saline, endotoxin, apocynin, and endotoxin/apocynin groups; P < 0.001]. Apocynin also prevented endotoxin-mediated increases in diaphragm 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine levels (P < 0.01). These data suggest that neutrophil-derived free radicals contribute to diaphragmatic dysfunction during sepsis. (+info)
Theoretical elucidation of activity differences of five phenolic antioxidants.
AIM: To verify the effectiveness of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and theoretical calculation methods for antioxidants. METHODS: Preliminary elucidation on the differences of activities of 5 antioxidants was performed by SAR. Then semiempirical quantum chemistry method AM1 was employed to calculate the delta HOF value, the difference between the heat of formation of antioxidant and its free radical, which was used as a theoretical parameter to elucidate the differences of activities of the antioxidants thoroughly. RESULTS: delta HOF values of antioxidants were obtained as follows: ferulic acid, 150.58 kJ.mol-1; anion of ferulic acid, 122.64 kJ.mol-1; modified ferulic acid, 137.70 kJ.mol-1; anion of modified ferulic acid, 118.99 kJ.mol-1; salvianic acid, 134.17 kJ.mol-1; rutin, 137.83 kJ.mol-1, L-EGCG, 124.39 kJ.mol-1; paeonol, 176.79 kJ.mol-1. The differences of the antioxidant activities were elucidated, and how to further enhance the antioxidant activity was investigated as well. CONCLUSION: The SAR and calculation methods are rather effective to elucidate the differences of antioxidant activities, and present some new clues for structural modification of antioxidants to increase their activities. (+info)