Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. (9/68)

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that reacted with the G. diazotrophicus antibody.  (+info)

Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants. (10/68)

Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated, in two different years, from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants cultivated in Mexico; they were designated as type DOR and type SAd isolates. They showed characteristics of the family Acetobacteraceae, having some features in common with Gluconacetobacter (formerly Acetobacter) diazotrophicus, the only known N2-fixing species of the acetic acid bacteria, but they differed from this species with regard to several characteristics. Type DOR isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from type SAd isolates. Type DOR isolates and type SAd isolates can both be differentiated from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by their growth features on culture media, their use of amino acids as nitrogen sources and their carbon-source usage. These results, together with the electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes and amplified rDNA restriction analysis, suggested that the type DOR and type SAd isolates represent two novel N2-fixing species. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strains CFN-Cf55T (type DOR isolate) and CFN-Ca54T (type SAd isolate) were closer to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (both strains had sequence similarities of 98.3%) than to Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Gluconacetobacter sacchari (similarities < 98%) or any other acetobacteria. Strain CFN-Cf55T exhibited low levels of DNA-DNA reassociation with type SAd isolates (mean 42%) and strain CFN-Ca54T exhibited mean DNA-DNA reassociation of 39.5% with type DOR isolates. Strains CFN-Cf55T and CFN-Ca54T exhibited very low DNA reassociation levels, 7-21%, with other closely related acetobacterial species. On the basis of these results, two novel N2-fixing species are proposed for the family Acetobacteraceae, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. (for the type DOR isolates), with strain CFN-Cf55T (= ATCC 700987T = DSM 13595T) as the type strain, and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov. (for the type SAd isolates), with strain CFN-Ca54T (= ATCC 70098ST = DSM 13594T) as the type strain.  (+info)

Response of the endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on solid media to changes in atmospheric partial O(2) pressure. (11/68)

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an N(2)-fixing endophyte isolated from sugarcane. G. diazotrophicus was grown on solid medium at atmospheric partial O(2) pressures (pO(2)) of 10, 20, and 30 kPa for 5 to 6 days. Using a flowthrough gas exchange system, nitrogenase activity and respiration rate were then measured at a range of atmospheric pO(2) (5 to 60 kPa). Nitrogenase activity was measured by H(2) evolution in N(2)-O(2) and in Ar-O(2), and respiration rate was measured by CO(2) evolution in N(2)-O(2). To validate the use of H(2) production as an assay for nitrogenase activity, a non-N(2)-fixing (Nif(-)) mutant of G. diazotrophicus was tested and found to have a low rate of uptake hydrogenase (Hup(+)) activity (0.016 +/- 0.009 micromol of H(2) 10(10) cells(-1) h(-1)) when incubated in an atmosphere enriched in H(2). However, Hup(+) activity was not detectable under the normal assay conditions used in our experiments. G. diazotrophicus fixed nitrogen at all atmospheric pO(2) tested. However, when the assay atmospheric pO(2) was below the level at which the colonies had been grown, nitrogenase activity was decreased. Optimal atmospheric pO(2) for nitrogenase activity was 0 to 20 kPa above the pO(2) at which the bacteria had been grown. As atmospheric pO(2) was increased in 10-kPa steps to the highest levels (40 to 60 kPa), nitrogenase activity decreased in a stepwise manner. Despite the decrease in nitrogenase activity as atmospheric pO(2) was increased, respiration rate increased marginally. A large single-step increase in atmospheric pO(2) from 20 to 60 kPa caused a rapid 84% decrease in nitrogenase activity. However, upon returning to 20 kPa of O(2), 80% of nitrogenase activity was recovered within 10 min, indicating a "switch-off/switch-on" O(2) protection mechanism of nitrogenase activity. Our study demonstrates that colonies of G. diazotrophicus can fix N(2) at a wide range of atmospheric pO(2) and can adapt to maintain nitrogenase activity in response to both long-term and short-term changes in atmospheric pO(2).  (+info)

Energy generation by extracellular aldose oxidation in N(2)-fixing Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. (12/68)

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL3 was grown in a chemostat with N(2) and mixtures of xylose and gluconate. Xylose was oxidized to xylonate, which was accumulated in the culture supernatants. Biomass yields and carbon from gluconate incorporated into biomass increased with the rate of xylose oxidation. By using metabolic balances it is demonstrated that extracellular xylose oxidation led N(2)-fixing G. diazotrophicus cultures to increase the efficiency of energy generation.  (+info)

Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-proteobacteria. (13/68)

Four bacterial strains were isolated from palm brown sugar and ragi collected in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, by an enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the four isolates constituted a cluster separate from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter and Asaia with a high bootstrap value in a phylogenetic tree. The isolates had high values of DNA-DNA similarity (78-100%) between one another and low values of the similarity (7-25%) to the type strains of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Asaia bogorensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates ranged from 56.8 to 57.2 mol% G+C with a range of 0-4 mol%. The major quinone was Q-10. The isolates oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water, but the activity was weak, as with strains of Asaia bogorensis. The isolates differed from Asaia bogorensis strains in phenotypic characteristics. The name Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the four isolates. Strain Yo-3T (= NRIC 0488T = JCM 11301T = IFO 16664T = DSM 14400T) was isolated from palm brown sugar collected in Bali, Indonesia, and was designated as the type strain.  (+info)

Asaia sp., an unusual spoilage organism of fruit-flavored bottled water. (14/68)

A gram-negative bacillus was isolated from a batch of fruit-flavored bottled water, which had spoiled as a result of bacterial overgrowth (>10(6) CFU/ml). The spoilage organism was extremely difficult to identify phenotypically and was poorly identified as Pasturella sp. (78.7% identification profile) employing the API 20NE identification scheme, which gave the profile 5040000. Molecular identification through PCR amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by direct automated sequencing of the PCR amplicon allowed identification of the organism. Due to the sequence identity (100%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was considered to be an Asaia sp., a recently described genus and member of the acetic acid bacteria. This is the first report of Asaia sp. causing spoilage of a foodstuff and highlights the benefits of molecular identification techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequences in the identification of unusual spoilage organisms.  (+info)

Evidence for protection of nitrogenase from O(2) by colony structure in the aerobic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. (15/68)

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane which exhibits nitrogenase activity when growing in colonies on solid media. Nitrogenase activity of G. diazotrophicus colonies can adapt to changes in atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)). This paper investigates whether colony structure and the position of G. diazotrophicus cells in the colonies are components of the bacterium's ability to maintain nitrogenase activity at a variety of atmospheric pO(2) values. Colonies of G. diazotrophicus were grown on solid medium at atmospheric pO(2) of 2 and 20 kPa. Imaging of live, intact colonies by confocal laser scanning microscopy and of fixed, sectioned colonies by light microscopy revealed that at 2 kPa O(2) the uppermost bacteria in the colony were very near the upper surface of the colony, while the uppermost bacteria of colonies cultured at 20 kPa O(2) were positioned deeper in the mucilaginous matrix of the colony. Disruption of colony structure by physical manipulation or due to 'slumping' associated with colony development resulted in significant declines in nitrogenase activity. These results support the hypothesis that G. diazotrophicus utilizes the path-length of colony mucilage between the atmosphere and the bacteria to achieve a flux of O(2) that maintains aerobic respiration while not inhibiting nitrogenase activity.  (+info)

The bc(1) complex of the iron-grown acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans functions in the reverse but not in the forward direction. Is there a second bc(1) complex? (16/68)

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium that can grow in the presence of either a weak reductant, Fe(2+), or reducing sulfur compounds that provide more energy for growth than Fe(2+). Here we first review the latest findings about the uphill electron transfer pathway established in iron-grown A. ferrooxidans, which has been found to involve a bc(1) complex. We then provide evidence that this bc(1) complex cannot function in the forward direction (exergonic reaction), even with an appropriate substrate. A search for the sequence of the three redox subunits of the A. ferrooxidans bc(1) complex (strain ATCC 19859) in the complete genome sequence of the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 strain showed the existence of two different bc(1) complexes in A. ferrooxidans. Cytochrome b and Rieske protein sequence comparisons allowed us to point out some sequence particularities of these proteins in A. ferrooxidans. Lastly, we discuss the possible reasons for the existence of two different "classical" bc(1) complexes and put forward some suggestions as to what role these putative complexes may play in this acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium.  (+info)