Genome sequence analysis of the emerging human pathogenic acetic acid bacterium Granulibacter bethesdensis. (33/68)

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immune deficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to infection with Staphylococcus, certain gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. Granulibacter bethesdensis, a newly described genus and species within the family Acetobacteraceae, was recently isolated from four CGD patients residing in geographically distinct locales who presented with fever and lymphadenitis. We sequenced the genome of the reference strain of Granulibacter bethesdensis, which was isolated from lymph nodes of the original patient. The genome contains 2,708,355 base pairs in a single circular chromosome, in which 2,437 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, 1,470 of which share sequence similarity with ORFs in the nonpathogenic but related Gluconobacter oxydans genome. Included in the 967 ORFs that are unique to G. bethesdensis are ORFs potentially important for virulence, adherence, DNA uptake, and methanol utilization. GC% values and best BLAST analysis suggested that some of these unique ORFs were recently acquired. Comparison of G. bethesdensis to other known CGD pathogens demonstrated conservation of some putative virulence factors, suggesting possible common mechanisms involved in pathogenesis in CGD. Genotyping of the four patient isolates by use of a custom microarray demonstrated genome-wide variations in regions encoding DNA uptake systems and transcriptional regulators and in hypothetical ORFs. G. bethesdensis is a genetically diverse emerging human pathogen that may have recently acquired virulence factors new to this family of organisms.  (+info)

Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. (34/68)

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Asaia lannaensis sp. nov., a new acetic acid bacterium in the Alphaproteobacteria. (35/68)

Asaia lannaensis sp. nov. was described for two strains isolated from flowers of the spider lily collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The isolates produced acetic acid from ethanol on ethanol/calcium carbonate agar, differing from the type strains of Asaia bogorensis, Asaia siamensis, and Asaia krungthepensis, but did not grow in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid (v/v). The new species is the fourth of the genus Asaia, the family Acetobacteraceae.  (+info)

Tanticharoenia sakaeratensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new osmotolerant acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria. (36/68)

Tanticharoenia sakaeratensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for three strains isolated from soil collected in Thailand. The three strains, AC37(T), AC38, and AC39, were included within a lineage comprising the genera Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Saccharibacter in a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, but formed a quite different, independent cluster. Pair-wise sequence similarities of strain AC37(T) were 96.5-92.1% to the type strains of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, Acidomonas methanolica, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Asaia bogorensis, Kozakia baliensis, Swaminathania salitolerans, Saccharibacter floricola, Neoasaia chiangmaiensis, and Granulibacter bethesdensis. The three strains had DNA base compositions comprising respectively 65.6, 64.5, and 65.6 mol % G+C with a range of 1.1 mol %, and formed a single species. Phenotypically, the three strains did not oxidize acetate or lactate, but grew on 30% D-glucose (w/v). Chemotaxonomically, they had Q-10. The type strain is AC37(T) (= BCC 15772(T) = NBRC 103193(T)).  (+info)

Energy metabolism of a unique acetic acid bacterium, Asaia bogorensis, that lacks ethanol oxidation activity. (37/68)

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known as a vinegar producer on account of their ability to accumulate a high concentration of acetic acid due to oxidative fermentation linking the ethanol oxidation respiratory chain. Reactions in oxidative fermentation cause poor growth because a large amount of the carbon source is oxidized incompletely and the harmful oxidized products are accumulated almost stoichiometrically in the culture medium during growth, but a newly identified AAB, Asaia, has shown unusual properties, including scanty acetic acid production and rapid growth, as compared with known AAB as Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Gluconacetobacter. To understand these unique properties of Asaia in more detail, the respiratory chain and energetics of this strain were investigated. It was found that Asaia lacks quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase, but has other sugar and sugar alcohol-oxidizing enzymes specific to the respiratory chain of Gluconobacter, especially quinoprotein glycerol dehydrogenase. It was also found that Asaia has a cyanide-sensitive cytochrome bo(3)-type ubiquinol oxidase as sole terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain, and that it exhibits a higher H(+)/O ratio.  (+info)

Elioraea tepidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic member of the Alphaproteobacteria. (38/68)

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Phylogenetic characterization of two novel commensal bacteria involved with innate immune homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster. (39/68)

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Physiology of acetic acid bacteria in light of the genome sequence of Gluconobacter oxydans. (40/68)

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