Evidence for conformational protection of nitrogenase against oxygen in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by a putative FeSII protein. (17/68)

The mechanisms protecting nitrogenase in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from damage by oxygen were studied. Evidence is provided suggesting that in G. diazotrophicus these mechanisms include respiratory protection as well as conformational protection in which a putative FeSII Shethna protein is involved.  (+info)

Cloning of the xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Gluconobacter oxydans and improved production of xylitol from D-arabitol. (18/68)

Xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621. The purified enzyme reduced D-xylulose to xylitol in the presence of NADH with an optimum pH of around 5.0. Based on the determined NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, the gene encoding xdh was cloned, and its identity was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli. The xdh gene encodes a polypeptide composed of 262 amino acid residues, with an estimated molecular mass of 27.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence suggested that the enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Expression plasmids for the xdh gene were constructed and used to produce recombinant strains of G. oxydans that had up to 11-fold greater XDH activity than the wild-type strain. When used in the production of xylitol from D-arabitol under controlled aeration and pH conditions, the strain harboring the xdh expression plasmids produced 57 g/l xylitol from 225 g/l D-arabitol, whereas the control strain produced 27 g/l xylitol. These results demonstrated that increasing XDH activity in G. oxydans improved xylitol productivity.  (+info)

The sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes from Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium spp. (19/68)

To identify the actual substrate of the glutathione-dependent sulfur dioxygenase (EC elemental sulfur oxidation of the meso-acidophilic Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains DSM 504 and K6, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain R1 and Acidiphilium acidophilum DSM 700 was analysed. Extraordinarily high specific sulfur dioxygenase activities up to 460 nmol x min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) were found in crude extracts. All cell-free systems oxidized elemental sulfur only via glutathione persulfide (GSSH), a non-enzymic reaction product from glutathione (GSH) and elemental sulfur. Thus, GSH plays a catalytic role in elemental sulfur activation, but is not consumed during enzymic sulfane sulfur oxidation. Sulfite is the first product of sulfur dioxygenase activity; it further reacted non-enzymically to sulfate, thiosulfate or glutathione S-sulfonate (GSSO(-3)). Free sulfide was not oxidized by the sulfur dioxygenase. Persulfide as sulfur donor could not be replaced by other sulfane-sulfur-containing compounds (thiosulfate, polythionates, bisorganyl-polysulfanes or monoarylthiosulfonates). The oxidation of H(2)S by the dioxygenase required GSSG, i.e. the disulfide of GSH, which reacted non-enzymically with sulfide to give GSSH prior to enzymic oxidation. On the basis of these results and previous findings a biochemical model for elemental sulfur and sulfide oxidation in Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium spp. is proposed.  (+info)

Identification of three genes encoding P(II)-like proteins in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: studies of their role(s) in the control of nitrogen fixation. (20/68)

In our studies on the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane, three glnB-like genes were identified and their role(s) in the control of nitrogen fixation was studied. Sequence analysis revealed that one P(II) protein-encoding gene, glnB, was adjacent to a glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase) and that two other P(II) protein-encoding genes, identified as glnK1 and glnK2, were located upstream of amtB1 and amtB2, respectively, genes which in other organisms encode ammonium (or methylammonium) transporters. Single and double mutants and a triple mutant with respect to the three P(II) protein-encoding genes were constructed, and the effects of the mutations on nitrogenase expression and activity in the presence of either ammonium starvation or ammonium sufficiency were studied. Based on the results presented here, it is suggested that none of the three P(II) homologs is required for nif gene expression, that the GlnK2 protein acts primarily as an inhibitor of nif gene expression, and that GlnB and GlnK1 control the expression of nif genes in response to ammonium availability, both directly and by relieving the inhibition by GlnK2. This model includes novel regulatory features of P(II) proteins.  (+info)

Asaia krungthepensis sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria. (21/68)

Three bacterial strains were isolated from flowers collected in Bangkok, Thailand, by an enrichment-culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were located in the lineage of the genus Asaia but constituted a cluster separate from the type strains of Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates was 60.2-60.5 mol% G+C, with a range of 0.3 mol%. The isolates constituted a taxon separate from Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness. The isolates had morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics similar to those of the type strains of Asaia bogorensis and Asaia siamensis, but the isolates grew on maltose. The major ubiquinone was Q(10). On the basis of the results obtained, the name Asaia krungthepensis sp. nov. is proposed for the isolates. The type strain is isolate AA08(T) (=BCC 12978(T)=TISTR 1524(T)=NBRC 100057(T)=NRIC 0535(T)), which had a DNA G+C content of 60.3 mol% and was isolated from a heliconia flower ('paksaasawan' in Thai; Heliconia sp.) collected in Bangkok, Thailand.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships of the genera Stella, Labrys and Angulomicrobium within the 'Alphaproteobacteria' and description of Angulomicrobium amanitiforme sp. nov. (22/68)

The unusually shaped bacteria of the genera Stella, Labrys and Angulomicrobium have been described based on their cell morphology and biochemistry. However, their phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved. An earlier study that was based on 5S rRNA gene sequences placed the genus Stella within the 'Alphaproteobacteria'. In the present report, polar lipids and 16S rRNA genes of the type strains of the two species in the genus Stella, Stella humosa DSM 5900(T) and Stella vacuolata DSM 5901(T), are studied, as well as the type strains of the monospecific genera Labrys (Labrys monachus VKM B-1479(T)) and Angulomicrobium (Angulomicrobium tetraedrale DSM 5895(T)). It was found that the genus Stella belongs to the order Rhodospirillales in the family Rhodospirillaceae, and not to the Acetobacteraceae. Whilst the position of the genus Angulomicrobium in the family Hyphomicrobiaceae was confirmed, the genus Labrys could not be placed into any known family, but was adjacent to the family 'Beijerinckiaceae'. In addition, data were obtained for strain VKM B-1336, which was shown not to belong to the genus Angulomicrobium, and strain NCIMB 1785(T) (=DSM 15561(T)), for which the name Angulomicrobium amanitiforme sp. nov. is proposed.  (+info)

Emendation of the genus Acidomonas Urakami, Tamaoka, Suzuki and Komagata 1989. (23/68)

The genus Acidomonas and the species Acidomonas methanolica were recharacterized by using the type strain (NRIC 0498(T)), three reference strains and 10 methanol-utilizing bacteria that were isolated from activated sludge from three different sewage-treatment plants in Tokyo. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, all strains formed a single cluster within the Acetobacteraceae that was clearly different from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia and KOZAKIA: The 14 strains were identified as a single species, Acidomonas methanolica, by DNA-DNA similarities, showed DNA G+C contents that ranged from 62 to 63 mol% and had Q-10 as the major quinone, accounting for >87 % of total ubiquinones. Cells of Acidomonas methanolica had a single polar flagellum (or occasionally polar tuft flagella); this differs from a previous study that described peritrichous flagella. Oxidation of acetate was positive for all strains, but oxidation of lactate was weakly positive and varied with strains. Dihydroxyacetone was not produced from glycerol. Pantothenic acid was an essential requirement for growth. The strains tested grew at mostly the same extent at pH 3.0-8.0. Therefore, Acidomonas methanolica should be regarded as acidotolerant, not acidophilic. The descriptions of the genus Acidomonas and the species Acidomonas methanolica Urakami, Tamaoka, Suzuki and Komagata 1989 are emended with newly obtained data.  (+info)

Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a salt-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacterium from wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka). (24/68)

A novel species, Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., was isolated from the rhizosphere, roots and stems of salt-tolerant, mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka) using nitrogen-free, semi-solid LGI medium at pH 5.5. Strains were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The strains grew well in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid, 3% NaCl and 1% KNO3, and produced acid from l-arabinose, d-glucose, glycerol, ethanol, d-mannose, d-galactose and sorbitol. They oxidized ethanol and grew well on mannitol and glutamate agar. The fatty acids 18 : 1omega7c/omega9t/omega12t and 19 : 0cyclo omega8c constituted 30.41 and 11.80% total fatty acids, respectively, whereas 13 : 1 AT 12-13 was found at 0.53%. DNA G+C content was 57.6-59.9 mol% and the major quinone was Q-10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains were related to the genera Acidomonas, Asaia, Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter and Kozakia in the Acetobacteraceae. Isolates were able to fix nitrogen and solubilized phosphate in the presence of NaCl. Based on overall analysis of the tests and comparison with the characteristics of members of the Acetobacteraceae, a novel genus and species is proposed for these isolates, Swaminathania salitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is PA51T (=LMG 21291T=MTCC 3852T).  (+info)