Comparative kinetic study between native and chemically modified Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases. (73/78)

The kinetic behaviour of native bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (N-SOD) and of its derivatives by reaction with polyethylene glycol, acetic and succinic anhydrides has been investigated here in detail. Their responses to changes of pH and ionic strength (I) have been used as a probe for quantitatively displaying the relevance to kinetic rate constant of superficial positive charges driving the superoxide ion (O2-) toward the enzyme's active site. Overall kinetic trends indicate that this long-range O2- electrostatic guidance is essentially due to the positive charges of the amino-acid residues Lys-120 and Lys-134 which are strategically located around the active site. The comparison between the kinetic data obtained from N-SOD and those from polyethylene-glycolated SOD (PEG-SOD) enabled us to state that in PEG-SOD an O2(-)-steering positive electrostatic force, halved in comparison with N-SOD, is still operating, and that only Lys-120 is linked in the reaction of N-SOD with PEG. Elimination of the electrostatic driving force, carried out either by deprotonation of lysine amino groups at high pH, or by their neutralization with succinic anhydride and acetic anhydride, or by ionic screening at high ionic strength, always lowered the kinetic rate constant to a value of approx. 3 x 10(8) M-1.s-1. This value is about 15 times smaller than that measured in the presence of the reactant-steering mechanism and represents the k value of the reaction limited by pure diffusion. Finally, the kinetic behaviour of acetylated SOD and succinylated SOD demonstrated the inhibitor effect of OH- at strongly alkaline pH.  (+info)

A new method for identifying the amino acid attached to a particular RNA in the cell. (74/78)

To investigate the function of tRNAs or any other aminoacylable RNAs in vivo, it is important to be able to estimate the amounts and species of aminoacylated RNAs in living cells. We have developed a method of analyzing amino acids attached to particular tRNAs obtained from cells. After the ester bond between the amino acid and the 3'-adenosine moiety of a specific aminoacyl-tRNA is stabilized by acetylation of the amino acid with [14C]acetic anhydride, the aminoacyl-tRNA can be fished out with a solid-phase-attached DNA probe. The 14C-labeled acetylamino acid is then released from the thus purified acetyl-aminoacyl-tRNAs by alkaline treatment and detected by TLC analysis.  (+info)

An essential tyrosine residue of Aspergillus polygalacturonase. (75/78)

Based on strict conservation of a tyrosine residue in 24 polygalacturonases, tyrosine modification was assessed in two different forms of the Aspergillus enzyme. The second subform was unknown in structure but submitted to sequence analysis and was found also to have the conserved tyrosine residue. Results of chemical modifications are consistent in showing inactivation of the proteins with all tyrosine-reactive agents tested, acetic anhydride, N-acetyl imidazole, and tetranitromethane. Furthermore, after acetylation, regeneration of enzyme activity was possible with hydroxylamine. Spectrophotometric pH titration showed that one accessible tyrosine residue is ionized at pH 9.3-9.5, whereas the remaining, masked residues are all ionized at pH 10.5. It is concluded that one tyrosine residue is catalytically important, in agreement with the inactivation and reactivation data, that this residue is accessible, and that it is likely to correspond to the strictly conserved residue observed in all forms.  (+info)

Selective loss of cerebral keratan sulfate in Alzheimer's disease. (76/78)

Proteoglycans, especially heparan sulfate-substituted species, are known to be associated with the deposition of amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. We previously found that heparan sulfate from afflicted brains, and from control subjects, differed minimally in quantity and structure (Lindahl, B., Eriksson, L., and Lindahl, U.(1995) Biochem. J. 306, 177-184). In the present study, a glycosaminoglycan fraction, shown to contain heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate, was radiolabeled by partial N-deacetylation (hydrazinolysis) followed by re-N-acetylation using [3H]acetic anhydride. Quantitation of the 3H-labeled polysaccharides, based on digestion with heparitinase I from Flavobacterium heparinum and keratanase from Pseudomonas sp., revealed that the amounts of keratan sulfate in Alzheimer cerebral cortex are reduced to less than half of control values. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody against a highly sulfated keratan sulfate epitope bound to the majority of the neurons in normal cortex but not in the diseased tissue. The lack of highly sulfated keratan sulfate structures may reflect a specific functional defect of the cells.  (+info)

Sensitive and specific quantification of sirolimus (rapamycin) and its metabolites in blood of kidney graft recipients by HPLC/electrospray-mass spectrometry. (77/78)

Sirolimus (rapamycin) has a macrolide structure and is under clinical investigation as an immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. An HPLC/mass spectrometry assay to quantify sirolimus in blood was developed. 28-O-Acetyl sirolimus was used as internal standard. Blood samples were extracted with C18 columns. The extracts were injected into an HPLC system and isocratically eluted with methanol/1% formic acid (90/10 by vol) from a 150 X 4 mm C18 analytical column. The HPLC system was connected to a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray interface and positive ions were detected. The limit of quantification in 1 mL of blood was 0.25 microgram/L and the calibration curve in blood was linear up to 250 microgram/L. The recovery from blood was 88 +/- 26% and interassay variation at 1 microgram/L was 19% and at 15 microgram/L 9.3%. Hydroxy, dihydroxy, demethyl, and didemethyl sirolimus as well as sirolimus were detected in blood of kidney graft patients.  (+info)

Isolation and physical characterization of the MUC7 (MG2) mucin from saliva: evidence for self-association. (78/78)

Saliva contains two major families of mucins (MG1 and MG2); the polypeptide of the smaller of these glycoproteins (MG2) has been assigned as the product of the MUC7 gene. In this study we have devised a rapid two-step procedure that recovers this glycoprotein essentially free of other components and in sufficient quantity to enable physical and self-interaction studies. Raw saliva was solubilized in 4 M guanidinium chloride and thereafter subjected to Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. The MG2-rich fraction was recovered free from the larger MG1 glycoproteins and also smaller proteins/glycoproteins (molecular mass less than 100 kDa). MG2 glycoproteins were finally purified by anion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q. The purity of the preparation was assessed by SDS/PAGE after radiolabelling of the molecules with [14C]acetic anhydride. Peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis verified the polypeptide of the mucins as the MUC7 gene product. The isolated molecules were examined by electron microscopy and appeared as short flexible worm-like structures 30-120 nm in length. The distribution was heterogeneous, containing a major component with number-average and weight-average lengths of 52 and 55 nm respectively and a minor component with number-average and weight-average lengths of 94 and 98 nm respectively. We propose that the two differently sized populations represent monomeric and dimeric species of the mucins. Gel chromatography performed in 0.2 M NaCl indicated the presence of monomers, dimers and tetramers; an average molecular mass for the preparation was 192 kDa. However, in 4 M guanidinium chloride the molecular mass was 158 kDa and a similar molecular mass (155 kDa) was determined for the mucin preparation after reduction. These results suggest that the mucins might self-associate via a protein-mediated interaction. On the basis of the results a model is proposed for the self-association of the MUC7 mucin, which might be important for its biological function.  (+info)