beta(1)-adrenergic antagonists improve sleep and behavioural disturbances in a circadian disorder, Smith-Magenis syndrome.
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognisable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. Patients have a phase shift of their circadian rhythm of melatonin with a paradoxical diurnal secretion of the hormone. Serum melatonin levels and day-night behaviour were studied in nine SMS children (aged 4 to 17 years) given acebutolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic antagonist (10 mg/kg early in the morning). Cardiac examination, serum melatonin, motor activity recordings, and sleep diaries were monitored before and after drug administration. The present study shows that a single morning dose of acebutolol suppressed the inappropriate secretion of melatonin in SMS. A significant improvement of inappropriate behaviour with increased concentration, delayed sleep onset, increased hours of sleep, and delayed waking were also noted. These results suggest that beta(1)-adrenergic antagonists help to manage hyperactivity, enhance cognitive performance, and reduce sleep disorders in SMS. (+info)
Streptococcus pneumoniae PstS production is phosphate responsive and enhanced during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity.
Differential display-PCR (DDPCR) was used to identify a Streptococcus pneumoniae gene with enhanced transcription during growth in the murine peritoneal cavity. Northern dot blot analysis and comparative densitometry confirmed a 1.8-fold increase in expression of the encoded sequence following murine peritoneal culture (MPC) versus laboratory culture or control culture (CC). Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analysis identified the DDPCR fragment as pstS, the phosphate-binding protein of a high-affinity phosphate uptake system. PCR amplification of the complete pstS gene followed by restriction analysis and sequencing suggests a high level of conservation between strains and serotypes. Quantitative immunodot blotting using antiserum to recombinant PstS (rPstS) demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PstS production during MPC from that during CCs, a finding consistent with the low levels of phosphate observed in the peritoneum. Moreover, immunodot blot and Northern analysis demonstrated phosphate-dependent production of PstS in six of seven strains examined. These results identify pstS expression as responsive to the MPC environment and extracellular phosphate concentrations. Presently, it remains unclear if phosphate concentrations in vivo contribute to the regulation of pstS. Finally, polyclonal antiserum to rPstS did not inhibit growth of the pneumococcus in vitro, suggesting that antibodies do not block phosphate uptake; moreover, vaccination of mice with rPstS did not protect against intraperitoneal challenge as assessed by the 50% lethal dose. (+info)
Evidence towards the role of arylamine N-acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium smegmatis and development of a specific antiserum against the homologous enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in humans inactivates the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid (INH). Homologues of human NAT are present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, where they can acetylate, and hence inactivate, INH. The in vivo role of mycobacterial NAT is not known but heterologous expression of the M. tuberculosis gene increases the INH resistance. The 0.85 kb nat gene is part of a gene cluster in M. smegmatis. The gene is transcribed as a large, 7.5 kb mRNA as demonstrated by Northern analysis. A nat knockout strain of M. smegmatis was generated by targeted disruption. The new strain was confirmed to be devoid of NAT activity. The growth of the knockout strain is considerably delayed compared with the wild-type, due to an extended lag phase. The knockout mutant has an increased sensitivity to INH as would be predicted. The NATs from M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis have a high degree of homology, except in the region of the C terminus. A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against recombinant NAT protein from M. tuberculosis is described that recognizes a stretch of about twenty residues within the C terminus of M. tuberculosis NAT. This highly specific antiserum will enable comparison of nat expression between isolates of M. tuberculosis. (+info)
Plasma levels and beta-adrenoceptor blockade with acebutolol, practolol and propranolol in man.
1 The degree of beta-adrenoceptor blockade of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia has been determined in three healthy volunteers after the administration of single oral doses of acebutolol, practolol or propranolol. 2 Plasma levels of these drugs were determined either colorimetrically (acebutolol and practolol) or fluorimetrically (propranolol). The colorimetric assay of acebutolol in plasma is fully described but the other drugs were assayed by published methods. 3 The degree of beta-adrenoceptor blockade and the plasma level for acebutolol and practolol were well correlated, whereas in the case of propranolol correlation was poor, due in part to the presence in plasma of active metabolites not detected by the fluorimetric assay. The plasma levels of practolol and propranolol are in agreement with those previously reported. 4 The maximum cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade achieved in this study with the respective single oral doses of acebutolol (300 mg), practolol (400 mg) or propranolol (40 mg) were similar in each of the three subjects. Therefore the beta-adrenoceptor blocking potencies of these drugs against isoprenaline-induced tachycardia are inversely related to these doses; indicating that propranolol is 7-8 times more potent than acebutolol and the latter slightly more potent than practolol. (+info)
Comparison of the actions of acebutolol, practolol and propranolol on calcium transport by heart microsomes and mitochondria.
1 The effects of acebutolol, practolol and propranolol (0,5-3 mM) on calcium uptake, calcium binding and ATPase activities of the rabbit and rat heart microsomal and mitochondrial fractions were investigated. 2 Dose-response and time course experiments revealed that propranolol greatly inhibited microsomal and mitochondrial calcium uptake whereas both acebutolol and practolol showed slight depressant effects. 3 The ATPase activities of microsomal and mitochondrial fractions were decreased by acebutolol, practolol and propranolol; however, the latter agent was more effective than the other two. 4 The inhibitory effects of acebutolol, practolol and propranolol on mitochondria and microsomes were not antagonized by adrenaline. 5 Propranolol decreased calcium binding by the microsomal fraction only, whereas acebutolol and practolol had no effect on microsomal or mitochondrial calcium binding. 6 The sensitivity of the rabbit heart subcellular fractions to the beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was similar to that of the rat heart; however, the calcium uptake and ATPase activities of microsomes were more sensitive to propranolol than mitochondria in both species. 7 Perfusion of rat hearts with 0.2-1 mM propranolol decreased contractile force, and microsomal and mitochondrial fractions obtained from these hearts accummulated less calcium in comparison to the control. On the other hand, acebutolol and practolol (0.2-1nM) had no appreciable effects on contractile force or subcellular fractions under similar conditions. 8 The negative inotropic effect of propranolol may partly be due to its inhibitory actions on calcium transport by subcellular organelles of the myocardium; the depressant action of propranolol on calcium transport is unlikely to be due to its beta-adrenoceptor blocking property. (+info)
Nodal and BMP2/4 signaling organizes the oral-aboral axis of the sea urchin embryo.
In the sea urchin embryo, the oral-aboral axis is specified after fertilization by mechanisms that are largely unknown. We report that early sea urchin embryos express Nodal and Antivin in the presumptive oral ectoderm and demonstrate that these genes control formation of the oral-aboral axis. Overexpression of nodal converted the whole ectoderm into oral ectoderm and induced ectopic expression of the orally expressed genes goosecoid, brachyury, BMP2/4, and antivin. Conversely, when the function of Nodal was blocked, by injection of an antisense Morpholino oligonucleotide or by injection of antivin mRNA, neither the oral nor the aboral ectoderm were specified. Injection of nodal mRNA into Nodal-deficient embryos induced an oral-aboral axis in a largely non-cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that the mechanisms responsible for patterning the oral-aboral axis of the sea urchin embryo may share similarities with mechanisms that pattern the dorsoventral axis of other deuterostomes. (+info)
Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of acebutolol.
AIMS: We aimed to investigate effects of grapefruit juice on acebutolol pharmacokinetics. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study, 10 healthy subjects ingested 200 mL grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 3 days and twice on day 4. On day 3, each subject ingested 400 mg acebutolol with grapefruit juice or water. The concentrations of acebutolol and its metabolite diacetolol were measured in plasma and urine up to 33 h. RESULTS: Grapefruit juice decreased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of acebutolol by 19% from 872 +/- 207 ng mL(-1) to 706 +/- 140 ng mL(-1) (95% CI on the difference -306, -26.4; P < 0.05), and the area under the concentration time curve (AUC(0-33 h)) by 7%, from 4498 +/- 939 ng mL(-1) h to 4182 +/- 915 ng mL(-1) h (95% CI -609, -23.0; P < 0.05). The half-life (t1/2) of acebutolol prolonged from 4.0 to 5.1 h (P < 0.05). The time to peak concentration and the amount of acebutolol excreted into urine (Ae) were unchanged. The Cmax, AUC(0-33 h), and Ae of diacetolol were decreased by 24% (P < 0.05), 18% (P < 0.05), and 20% (P < 0.01), respectively, by grapefruit juice. CONCLUSION: Grapefruit juice caused a small decrease in the plasma concentrations of acebutolol and diacetolol by interfering with gastrointestinal absorption. The interaction between the grapefruit juice and acebutolol is unlikely to be of clinical significance in most of the patients. (+info)
Transport of acebutolol through rabbit corneal epithelium.
The purpose of this study is to characterize transport of acebutolol through the corneal epithelium. Cultured normal rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were used to investigate the drug transport. Primary RCEC were seeded on a filter membrane of Transwell-COL insert coated with fibronectin and were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 with various supplements. Measurements of acebutolol permeability through RCEC layer were carried out to assess transcellular permeability coefficient (P(transcell)) in the absence or presence of inhibitors. Paracellular permeability coefficient (P(paracell)) was calculated by permeability coefficient of hydrophilic drugs (P(cell)). The transcellular permeability of acebutolol from apical side to basal side (A-to-B) showed concentration-dependency. The acebutolol flux in the A-to-B direction was smaller than that of opposite direction. Sodium azide, verapamil, and cyclosporin A enhanced the transcellular permeability of acebutolol in the A-to-B direction. Acebutolol permeability through an excised rabbit cornea was also increased by verapamil. Thus, it was suggested that acebutolol was actively secreted via P-glycoprotein in a corneal epithelium. (+info)