(1/654) Changes across 3 years in self-reported awareness of product warning messages in a Hispanic community.
This study investigated the self-reported awareness of product warning messages among independent random samples of Hispanics in San Francisco surveyed from 1989 through 1992. Messages tested were primarily related to cigarette smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. In general, respondents reported low levels of awareness of product warning messages with the exception of those messages dealing with the consumption of alcohol or cigarettes during pregnancy. Nevertheless, there were increases in awareness across years for the alcohol-related warning messages and for one of the cigarette messages, indicating that continued exposure increases awareness of the message. A notable proportion of the respondents reported being aware of a bogus message implying the presence of socially desirable responses in self-reports of message awareness. Gender, education, age and acculturation level of the respondents also showed effects on reported awareness of specific messages. Continued exposure to product warning messages seems useful in producing health-enhancing behaviors among Hispanics. (+info)
(2/654) Cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican American adults: a transcultural analysis of NHANES III, 1988-1994.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which cardiovascular disease risk factors differ among subgroups of Mexican Americans living in the United States. METHODS: Using data from a national sample (1988-1994) of 1387 Mexican American women and 1404 Mexican American men, aged 25 to 64 years, we examined an estimate of coronary heart disease mortality risk and 5 primary cardiovascular disease risk factors: systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk were evaluated by country of birth and primary language spoken. RESULTS: Estimated 10-year coronary heart disease mortality risk per 1000 persons, adjusted for age and education, was highest for US-born Spanish-speaking men and women (27.5 and 11.4, respectively), intermediate for US-born English-speaking men and women (22.5 and 7.0), and lowest for Mexican-born men and women (20.0 and 6.6). A similar pattern of higher risk among US-born Spanish-speaking men and women was demonstrated for each of the 5 cardiovascular disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican American population and identify a new group at substantial risk for cardiovascular disease and in need of effective heart disease prevention programs. (+info)
(3/654) Illness and treatment perceptions of Ethiopian immigrants and their doctors in Israel.
OBJECTIVES: Patient-provider misunderstandings arising from disparate medical and cultural concepts can impede health care among immigrant populations. This study assessed the extent of disagreement and identified the salient problems of communication between Israeli doctors and Ethiopian immigrant patients. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 59 Ethiopian immigrants. Self-reports of health status and effectiveness of treatment were compared with evaluations by the primary care physician and supplemented by qualitative data from descriptions of illness, observations of medical visits, informant interviews, and participant observations conducted by the anthropologist. RESULTS: Health status and effectiveness of treatment were rated significantly higher by the doctor than by the patients. Low doctor-patient agreement occurred mainly for illnesses with stress-related or culture-specific associations. Qualitative data suggested that more long-term immigrants may alter their expectations of treatment but continue to experience symptoms that are culturally, but not biomedically, meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: Misunderstandings between immigrant patients and their doctors emerge from the biomedical system's limitations in addressing stress-related illnesses and from culture-based discrepancies in concepts of illness and healing. Including trained translators in medical teams can reduce medical misunderstandings and increase patient satisfaction among immigrant populations. (+info)
(4/654) Is acculturation a risk factor for early smoking initiation among Chinese American minors? A comparative perspective.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which Chinese American and white minors differ in age of smoking initiation, and to determine the effect of acculturation on smoking initiation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone surveys. SETTING: Stratified random samples of the state of California, United States. SUBJECTS: 347 Chinese American and 10 129 white adolescents aged 12 through 17 years, from the California Tobacco Survey (1990-93) and the California Youth Tobacco Survey (1994-96). OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazards (risk) of smoking initiation by age, smoking initiation rate, cumulative smoking rate, mean age of smoking initiation, and acculturation status. STATISTICAL METHODS: Life table methods, proportional hazards models, and chi(2) tests. RESULTS: The risk of smoking initiation by age among Chinese American minors was about a third of that among white minors. The risk for Chinese Americans continued to rise even in later adolescence, in contrast to that for whites, which slowed after 15 years of age. Acculturation was associated significantly with smoking onset among Chinese Americans. Acculturation, smoking among social network members, attitudes toward smoking, and perceived benefits of smoking were associated with the difference in hazards of smoking onset between Chinese American minors and their white counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese American adolescents had a lower level and a different pattern of smoking onset than white adolescents. Levels of acculturation and other known risk factors were associated with the hazards of smoking initiation among Chinese American minors and with the difference in smoking initiation between the Chinese and white adolescents. Tobacco prevention policies, strategies, and programmes for ethnically diverse populations should take acculturation factors into account. (+info)
(5/654) Beyond artificial, sex-linked distinctions to conceptualize female sexuality: comment on Baumeister (2000)
The authors comment on three aspects of R. F. Baumeister's (2000) theoretical article on female sexuality. Questioning the predominance of nature versus cultural factors in accounting for sexual outcomes for men and women, the authors draw attention to the similarities (as opposed to differences) in the sexual attitudes, behaviors, and responses of men and women, and directly question the suggestion of "controlling" women's sexual attitudes, behaviors, responses, etc. to meet social needs for change. (+info)
(6/654) Differences in energy, nutrient, and food intakes in a US sample of Mexican-American women and men: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.
As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n = 1,404) aged 25-64 years: those born in Mexico, those born in the United States whose primary language was Spanish, and those born in the United States whose primary language was English. Percentages of persons who met the national dietary guidelines for fat, fiber, and potassium and the recommended intakes of vitamins and minerals associated with cardiovascular disease were also compared. In general, Mexican Americans born in Mexico consumed significantly less fat and significantly more fiber; vitamins A, C, E, and B6; and folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium than did those born in the United States, regardless of language spoken. More women and men born in Mexico met the dietary guidelines or recommended nutrient intakes than those born in the United States. The heart-healthy diets of women and men born in Mexico should be encouraged among all Mexican Americans living in the United States, especially given the increasing levels of obesity and diabetes among this rapidly growing group of Americans. (+info)
(7/654) Recency of immigration, substance use, and sexual behavior among Massachusetts adolescents.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between recency of immigration, substance use, and sexual behavior. METHODS: Surveys were conducted with 2635 Massachusetts 8th and 10th graders that allowed comparisons of health behaviors and risk and protective factors among students living in the United States "always," more than 6 years, or 6 years or less. RESULTS: Compared with lifetime residents, immigrant youths (particularly those living in the United States 6 years or less) reported lower lifetime and recent alcohol and marijuana use (P < .001); sexual intercourse rates were similar across groups. However, recent immigrants were most likely to report peer pressures to engage in, and less parental support to avoid, risk behaviors (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A window of opportunity exists to provide primary prevention programs in schools to immigrant youths that may reduce adolescent health risk behaviors. (+info)
(8/654) Acculturation and leisure-time physical inactivity in Mexican American adults: results from NHANES III, 1988-1994.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between acculturation and leisure-time physical inactivity among Mexican American adults. METHODS: Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity according to place of birth and language used at home. RESULTS: Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans had a higher prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time than those who spoke mostly English, independent of place of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Acculturation seems to be positively associated with participation in leisure-time physical activity. (+info)