The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats.
A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training. (+info)
Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species.
The genome sequence of the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their homologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50 degrees C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G+C contents are nearly identical. The properties most correlated with the proteins of the thermophile include higher residue volume, higher residue hydrophobicity, more charged amino acids (especially Glu, Arg, and Lys), and fewer uncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln). These are recurring themes, with all trends applying to 83-92% of the proteins for which complete sequences were available. Nearly all of the amino acid replacements most significantly correlated with the temperature change are the same relatively conservative changes observed in all proteins, but in the case of the mesophile/thermophile comparison there is a directional bias. We identify 26 specific pairs of amino acids with a statistically significant (P < 0.01) preferred direction of replacement. (+info)
Desiccation resistance in interspecific Drosophila crosses. Genetic interactions and trait correlations.
We used crosses between two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila serrata and D. birchii, to examine the genetic basis of desiccation resistance and correlations between resistance, physiological traits, and life-history traits. D. serrata is more resistant to desiccation than D. birchii, and this may help to explain the broader geographical range of the former species. A comparison of F2's from reciprocal crosses indicated higher resistance levels when F2's originated from D. birchii mothers compared to D. serrata mothers. However, backcrosses had a resistance level similar to that of the parental species, suggesting an interaction between X-linked effects in D. serrata that reduce resistance and autosomal effects that increase resistance. Reciprocal differences persisted in hybrid lines set up from the different reciprocal crosses and tested at later generations. Increased desiccation resistance was associated with an increased body size in two sets of hybrid lines and in half-sib groups set up from the F4's after crossing the two species, but size associations were inconsistent in the F2's. None of the crosses provided evidence for a positive association between desiccation resistance and glycogen levels, or evidence for a tradeoff between desiccation resistance and early fecundity. However, fecundity was positively correlated with body size at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. This study illustrates how interspecific crosses may provide information on genetic interactions between traits following adaptive divergence, as well as on the genetic basis of the traits. (+info)
Thermal compensation in protein and RNA synthesis during the intermolt cycle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.
1. The in vitro rates of incorporation of precursors into protein and RNA and the concentration of RNA were measured in tissues of intermolt and premolt lobsters acclimated to 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Midgut gland, abdominal muscle and gill of intermolt lobsters respond to temperature acclimation by a compensatory translation of the rate-temperature (R-T) curves with respect to the rates of incorporation of 3H-leucine and 3H-uridine into the acid-insoluble fraction. Midgut gland and muscle of premolt animals exhibit either no compensation or inverse compensation; gill tissue exhibits a rotation of the R-T curve. 2. The existence of the complete de novo pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis is demonstrated in the class Crustacea. NaH14 CO2 is incorporated into orotic acid and orotic-14 C-acid is incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction. 3. Both the concentration of RNA and the rates of incorporation of precursors of both the salvage and de novo pyrimidine pathways are enhanced in the midgut gland of premolt lobsters, relative to intermolt tissue, under conditions of warm-acclimation. (+info)
Acclimation of Arabidopsis leaves developing at low temperatures. Increasing cytoplasmic volume accompanies increased activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle and in the sucrose-biosynthesis pathway.
Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23 degrees C and then shifted to 5 degrees C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5 degrees C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5 degrees C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23 degrees C. Leaf development at 5 degrees C resulted in the recovery of photosynthesis to rates comparable with those achieved by control leaves at 23 degrees C. There was a shift in the partitioning of carbon from starch and toward sucrose (Suc) in leaves that developed at 5 degrees C. The recovery of photosynthetic capacity and the redirection of carbon to Suc in these leaves were associated with coordinated increases in the activity of several Calvin-cycle enzymes, even larger increases in the activity of key enzymes for Suc biosynthesis, and an increase in the phosphate available for metabolism. Development of leaves at 5 degrees C also led to an increase in cytoplasmic volume and a decrease in vacuolar volume, which may provide an important mechanism for increasing the enzymes and metabolites in cold-acclimated leaves. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such structural changes during leaf development in the cold could result in novel approaches to increasing plant yield. (+info)
Cold acclimation of guinea pig depressed contraction of cardiac papillary muscle.
Guinea pigs were exposed to 5 degrees C for 3 wk, and the contractions of myocardial papillary muscle were compared with preparations dissected from control animals kept at approximately 25 degrees C. Developed tension of the papillary muscle per cross-sectional area was significantly (t-test, P < 0.05) decreased after cold exposure (19,200 +/- 8,160 vs. 3,020 +/- 2,890 dyne/cm2; 1 Hz). Time to peak tension was significantly faster in cold-exposed guinea pigs (126.4 +/- 11.1 ms; 1 Hz) than in controls (162.7 +/- 8. 7 ms). The magnitude of the developed tension after application of ryanodine (2 mM) to muscles from cold-exposed animals was decreased to 37.5 +/- 8.3% of control at 1 Hz, whereas in muscles from control animals, tension was decreased to 82.4 +/- 7.7%. The ryanodine-sensitive component of contraction was not significantly changed in control guinea pigs at frequencies >0.5 Hz, whereas in muscles from cold-acclimated guinea pigs, there was a "positive staircase." These results suggested that reversal of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is predominantly involved in the positive staircase in control guinea pigs, whereas rate-dependent increases in the Ca2+ store in the sarcoplasmic reticulum may be involved in the staircase after cold acclimation. (+info)
Core temperature and sweating onset in humans acclimated to heat given at a fixed daily time.
The thermoregulatory functions of rats acclimated to heat given daily at a fixed time are altered, especially during the period in which they were previously exposed to heat. In this study, we investigated the existence of similar phenomena in humans. Volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature (Ta) of 46 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20% for 4 h (1400-1800) for 9-10 consecutive days. In the first experiment, the rectal temperatures (Tre) of six subjects were measured over 24 h at a Ta of 27 degrees C with and without heat acclimation. Heat acclimation significantly lowered Tre only between 1400 and 1800. In the second experiment, six subjects rested in a chair at a Ta of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40% with both legs immersed in warm water (42 degrees C) for 30 min. The Tre and sweating rates at the forearm and chest were measured. Measurements were made in the morning (0900-1100) and afternoon (1500-1700) on the same day before and after heat acclimation. Heat acclimation shortened the sweating latency and decreased the threshold Tre for sweating. However, these changes were significant only in the afternoon. The results suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, limited to a fixed time daily, alters the core temperature level and thermoregulatory function, especially during the period in which the subjects had previously been exposed to heat. (+info)
Heat acclimation increases the basal HSP72 level and alters its production dynamics during heat stress.
It has been previously shown that heat acclimation leads to an elevated basal level of 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72). Augmented expression of HSP72 is considered as a cytoprotective response. This led us to hypothesize that alterations in the heat shock protein (HSP) defense pathway are an integral part of the heat acclimation repertoire. To investigate this, we studied the temporal profile of basal HSP expression upon acclimation and the dynamics of their accumulation subsequent to acute heat stress (HS). In parallel, HSP72 mRNA level before and after HS was measured. For comparison, HSC mRNA [the constitutive member of 70-kDa HSP (HSP70) family] was measured in similar conditions. Heat acclimation was attained by continuous exposure of rats to 34 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 30 days. HS was attained by exposure to 41 or 43 degrees C for 2 h. Thermoregulatory capacity of the rats was defined by rectal temperature, heating rate, and the cumulative heat strain invoked during HS. HSP72 and HSP70 gene transcripts were measured in the left ventricle of the heart by means of Western immunoblotting and semiquantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The resultant acclimatory change comprised a higher resting level of the encoded 72-kDa protein (Delta175%, P < 0.0001). After HS, peak HSP72 mRNA level was attained, 40 and 20 min post-HS at 41 and 43 degrees C, respectively, vs. 60 and 40 min in the nonacclimated group. The subsequent HSP synthesis, however, was dependent on the severity of the cumulative heat strain. At the initial phase of heat acclimation, augmented HSP72 transcription unaccompanied by HSP synthesis was observed. It is concluded that upon heat acclimation, the HSP defense pathway is predisposed to a faster response. At the initial phases of heat acclimation, inability to elevate the HSP cytosolic level rules out their direct cytoprotective role. (+info)