Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events.
BACKGROUND: Horse riding is a hazardous pastime, with a number of studies documenting high rates of injury and death among horse riders in general. This study focuses on the injury experience of cross country event riders, a high risk subset of horse riders. METHOD: Injury data were collected at a series of 35 equestrian events in South Australia from 1990 to 1998. RESULTS: Injury rates were found to be especially high among event riders, with frequent falls, injuries, and even deaths. The highest injury rates were among the riders competing at the highest levels. CONCLUSION: There is a need for skilled emergency medical services at equestrian events. (+info)
Results of the Bosworth method for unstable fractures of the distal clavicle.
Eleven consecutive Neer's type II unstable fractures of the distal third of the clavicle were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, using a temporary Bosworth-type screw. In all cases, fracture healing occurred within 10 weeks. Shoulder function was restored to the pre-injury level. A Bosworth-type screw fixation is a relatively easy and safe technique of open reduction and internal fixation of type II fractures of the distal third of the clavicle. (+info)
Fractures of the posteromedial process of the talus. A report of two cases.
The authors present two cases of fractures of posteromedial process of talus. One was treated conservatively and the other by excision. The appearances of the CT scans, the therapeutic options and the mechanisms of injury are discussed. (+info)
EMG responses to free fall in elderly subjects and akinetic rigid patients.
OBJECTIVES: The EMG startle response to free fall was studied in young and old normal subjects, patients with absent vestibular function, and patients with akinetic-rigid syndromes. The aim was to detect any derangement in this early phase of the "landing response" in patient groups with a tendency to fall. In normal subjects the characteristics of a voluntary muscle contraction (tibialis anterior) was also compared when evoked by a non-startling sound and by the free fall startle. METHODS: Subjects lay supine on a couch which was unexpectedly released into free fall. Latencies of multiple surface EMG recordings to the onset of free fall, detected by a head mounted linear accelerometer, were measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: (1) EMG responses in younger normal subjects occurred at: sternomastoid 54 ms, abdominals 69 ms, quadriceps 78 ms, deltoid 80 ms, and tibialis anterior 85 ms. This pattern of muscle activation, which is not a simple rostrocaudal progression, may be temporally/spatially organised in the startle brainstem centres. (2) Voluntary tibialis EMG activation was earlier and stronger in response to a startling stimulus (fall) than in response to a non-startling stimulus (sound). This suggests that the startle response can be regarded as a reticular mechanism enhancing motor responsiveness. (3) Elderly subjects showed similar activation sequences but delayed by about 20 ms. This delay is more than can be accounted for by slowing of central and peripheral motor conduction, therefore suggesting age dependent delay in central processing. (4) Avestibular patients had normal latencies indicating that the free fall startle can be elicited by non-vestibular inputs. (5) Latencies in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were normal whereas responses were earlier in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and delayed or absent in patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski (SRO) syndrome. The findings in this patient group suggest: (1) lack of dopaminergic influence on the timing of the startle response, (2) concurrent cerebellar involvement in MSA may cause startle disinhibition, and (3) extensive reticular damage in SRO severely interferes with the response to free fall. (+info)
Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people.
OBJECTIVE: Balance disorders increase with aging and raise the risk of accidental falls in the elderly. It has been suggested that the practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) efficiently counteracts these age related disorders, reducing the risk of falling significantly. METHODS: This study, principally based on a period during which the subjects were engaged in PSA, included 65 healthy subjects, aged over 60, who were living at home. Three series of posturographic tests (static, dynamic with a single and fast upward tilt, and dynamic with slow sinusoidal oscillations) analysing the centre of foot pressure displacements or electromyographic responses were conducted to determine the effects of PSA practice on balance control. RESULTS: The major variables of postural control were best in subjects who had always practised PSA (AA group). Those who did not take part in PSA at all (II group) had the worst postural performances, whatever the test. Subjects having lately begun PSA practice (IA group) had good postural performances, close to those of the AA group, whereas the subjects who had stopped the practice of PSA at an early age (AI group) did not perform as well. Overall, the postural control in the group studied decreased in the order AA > IA > AI > II. CONCLUSIONS: The period during which PSA are practised seems to be of major importance, having a positive bearing on postural control. It seems that recent periods of practice have greater beneficial effects on the subject's postural stability than PSA practice only at an early age. These data are compatible with the fact that PSA are extremely useful for elderly people even if it has not been a lifelong habit. (+info)
Fracture epidemiology and control in a developmental center.
During 3.5 years, 182 fractures occurred among 994 residents of a developmental center. The fracture rate was 5.2 per 100 person-years (1.7 times greater than the rate in the US population). Fracture rate was significantly greater in residents with: epilepsy, older age, male gender, white race, independent ambulation, osteoporosis, and residence in intermediate care (versus skilled nursing) units; it was not affected by severity of mental retardation. Hand and foot bones were fractured in 58% of cases. Femur fracture occurred in 13 cases (7%). Fracture was caused by a fall in 41 cases (23%); its cause was indeterminable in 105 cases (58%). Fractures, occurring without significant injury, may be an important cause of preventable disability in this population. Control measures are suggested. (+info)
The prognosis of falls in elderly people living at home.
BACKGROUND: there are few longitudinal studies of the prognosis of falling at home. OBJECTIVE: to determine outcomes in older people who fall once and more than once. DESIGN: longitudinal prospective cohort study. SETTING: primary care in the UK. SUBJECTS: 1815 subjects over 75 who had a standardized and validated health check. METHOD: annual interviews over 4 years. Practice records were used to establish death and admission to institutions. RESULTS: risk of death was increased at 1 year [odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.7] and 3 years (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) for recurrent fallers but not single fallers (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6 at 1 year; OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.7-1.4 at 3 years). Risk of admission to long-term care over 1 year was markedly increased both for single fallers (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.3) and recurrent fallers (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-12). Functional decline was not related to faller status, the latter being very variable from one year to the next. CONCLUSIONS: the stronger relationship between falling and admission to long-term care rather than mortality supports the hypothesis that the perceived risks for those who fall only once are exaggerated. (+info)
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity--a modifiable risk factor for fractured neck of femur.
BACKGROUND: the potential impact on morbidity, mortality and health care economics makes it important to identify patients at risk of fracture, in particular fractured neck of femur (FNOF). Older patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are more likely to have unexplained falls and to experience fractures, particularly FNOF. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CSH in patients with FNOF. DESIGN: case-controlled prospective series. METHODS: consecutive cases were admissions over 65 years with FNOF. Controls were consecutive patients admitted for elective hip surgery, frail elderly people admitted to hospital medical wards and day-hospital patients. All patients had a clinical assessment of cognitive function, physical abilities and history of previous syncope, falls and dizziness, in addition to repeated carotid sinus massage with continuous heart rate and phasic blood pressure measurement. RESULTS: heart rate slowing and fall in systolic blood pressure was greater for patients with FNOF than those admitted for elective hip surgery (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). CSH was present in 36% of the FNOF group, none of the elective surgery group, 13% of the acutely ill controls and 17% of the outpatients. It was more likely to be present in FNOF patients with a previous history of unexplained falls or an unexplained fall causing the index fracture. The heart rate and systolic blood pressure responses to carotid sinus stimulation were reproducible. CONCLUSION: older patients with an acute neck of femur fracture who do not give a clear history of an accidental fall or who have had previously unexplained falls are likely to have CSH. CSH may be a modifiable risk factor for older patients at risk of hip fracture. (+info)