Enhanced killing of penicillin-treated gram-positive cocci by human granulocytes: role of bacterial autolysins, catalase, and granulocyte oxidative pathways. (25/34)

Staphylococci pretreated with subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of cell-wall active antibiotics exhibit increased susceptibility to killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), even when phagosome information is impaired by the mold metabolite, cytochalasin B. To investigate the role of specific bacterial factors in the process, studies were carried out with organisms lacking catalase (streptococci) or cell-wall autolytic enzymes and compared to findings with Staphylococcus aureus 502A. Neutrophil factors were studied using inhibitors, oxygen radical scavengers, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-deficient PMNs, or PMNs from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Documentation of the enhanced susceptibility of the streptococcal strains to killing by PMNs following subMIC penicillin pretreatment required the use of cytochalasin B. Enhancement of killing occurred independent of the presence or absence of bacterial autolysins or catalase. SubMIC penicillin pretreatment of S. pneumoniae R36A specifically promoted the susceptibility of these organisms to killing by myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated mechanisms (enhancement lost using MPO-deficient or azide-treated cells). Factors other than MPO or toxic oxygen products generated by the PMN respiratory burst are responsible for enhanced killing of penicillin-pretreated S. aureus 502A (enhancement preserved using MPO-deficient, azide-treated, or chronic granulomatous disease patient cells). These studies define methods to study the interaction of antimicrobial agents and PMNs in the killing of microorganisms. They also demonstrate that penicillin treatment can change the susceptibility of gram-positive cocci to the action of specific PMN microbicidal mechanisms. The mechanism of the enhancement appears to be bacterial strain-dependent and not predictable by bacterial autolysin or catalase activity.  (+info)

Mechanism of chromium(VI) toxicity in Escherichia coli: is hydrogen peroxide essential in Cr(VI) toxicity? (26/34)

To investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide in Cr(VI) toxicity in vivo toward bacterial cells, we examined the effect of Cr(VI), hydrogen peroxide, sodium azide, and mannitol on the viability of Escherichia coli. Bacterial cells were incubated for 1 h with shaking in the presence of Cr(VI), hydrogen peroxide, sodium azide as catalase inhibitor, and/or mannitol as radical scavenger. The colony-forming ability and double-strand DNA degradation were examined. The viability assays revealed that Cr(VI) toxicity depended on hydroxyl radicals generated in the reaction involving hydrogen peroxide and chromium. Moreover, incubation of E. coli cells with 10 mM Cr(VI) and 3 mM hydrogen peroxide caused the degradation of double-strand DNA in vivo, which was suppressed by the addition of mannitol. These results indicated that hydroxyl radicals generated in the incubation degraded DNA of E. coli cells, resulting in cell death. In the absence of added hydrogen peroxide, the intracellular concentration of hydrogen peroxide in E. coli was low (below 1 microM). A catalase-defective strain incubated in the absence of added hydrogen peroxide remained fully viable after 1 h but showed decreased viability after prolonged incubation (4-8 h). The addition of mannitol suppressed this decrease, suggesting that hydroxyl radicals may be involved in the expression of Cr(VI) toxicity even without added hydrogen peroxide.  (+info)

DNA repair is more important than catalase for Salmonella virulence in mice. (27/34)

Pathogenic microorganisms possess antioxidant defense mechanisms for protection from reactive oxygen metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are generated during the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. These defense mechanisms include enzymes such as catalase, which detoxify reactive oxygen species, and DNA repair systems which repair damage resulting from oxidative stress. To determine the relative importance of these two potentially protective defense mechanisms against oxidative stress encountered by Salmonella during infection of the host, a Salmonella typhimurium double mutant unable to produce either the HPI or HPII catalase was constructed, and compared with an isogenic recA mutant deficient in DNA repair. The recA mutant was hypersusceptible to H2O2 at low cell densities in vitro, while the catalase mutant was more susceptible to high H2O2 concentrations at high cell densities. The catalase mutant was found to be resistant to macrophages and retained full murine virulence, in contrast to the recA mutant which previously was shown to be macrophage-sensitive and attenuated in mice. These observations suggest that Salmonella is subjected to low concentrations of H2O2 while at relatively low cell density during infection, conditions requiring an intact DNA repair system but not functional catalase activity.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and rescue of acatalasemic mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. (28/34)

The enzyme catalase protects aerobic organisms from oxygen-free radical damage by converting hydrogen peroxide to molecular oxygen and water before it can decompose to form the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radicals are the most deleterious of the activated oxygen intermediates found in aerobic organisms. If formed, they can react with biological molecules in their proximity; the ensuing damage has been implicated in the increasing risk of disease and death associated with aging. To study further the regulation and role of catalase we have undertaken a molecular characterization of the Drosophila catalase gene and two potentially acatalasemic alleles. We have demonstrated that a previously existing allele, Catn4, likely contains a null mutation, a mutation which blocks normal translation of the encoded mRNA. The Catn1 mutation appears to cause a significant change in the protein sequence; however, it is unclear why this change leads to a nonfunctioning protein. Viability of these acatalasemic flies can be restored by transformation with the wild-type catalase gene; hence, we conclude that the lethality of these genotypes is due solely to the lack of catalase. The availability of flies with transformed catalase genes has allowed us to address the effect of catalase levels on aging in Drosophila. Though lack of catalase activity caused decreased viability and life span, increasing catalase activity above wild-type levels had no effect on normal life span.  (+info)

Characterization of a catalase-deficient strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: evidence for the significance of catalase in the biology of N. gonorrhoeae. (29/34)

We obtained a catalase-deficient (Kat-) strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from a patient who had been unsuccessfully treated with penicillin. Quantitative enzyme assays and electrophoresis of cell extracts on native polyacrylamide gels subsequently stained for catalase and peroxidase activities failed to detect both enzymes. The strain exhibited no growth anomalies or unusual requirements when grown under ordinary laboratory conditions. However, the Kat- strain proved extremely sensitive to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, and analysis of the bacterial DNA after such exposure showed extensive single-strand breakage in both chromosomal and plasmid DNAs. Partial characterization of the gonococcal catalase from a Kat+ laboratory strain revealed that the enzyme had the physical and chemical properties of both catalase and peroxidase.  (+info)

Construction of catalase deficient Escherichia coli strains for the production of uricase. (30/34)

To produce catalase-free uricase preparations, we constructed catalase-deficient strains from Escherichai coli MC1000 and MM294 and used them as recombinant host strains. The parent strains and catalase-deficient strains showed no differences in the growth characteristics by shaking culture in Erlenmeyer flasks. The catalase deficient strain derived from MC1000 transformed with the uricase expression plasmid pUT118 (strain SN0037) had growth characteristics and the uricase productivity comparable to those of the parent host strain MC1000 in fed-batch culture in a jar fermentor and no catalase activity was detected in cell-free extracts. However, the katG disrupted strains from MM294 carrying pUT118 had poor growth and their uricase productivities were low compared to those of the parent strain MM294. Using the strain SN0037, a catalase-free uricase preparation was obtained with fewer purification procedures and the final recovery of uricase activity was improved. The catalase-deficient E. coli host strain will be a suitable host for the production of the uricase, free of catalase activity, in high yield.  (+info)

Characterization of hydrogen peroxide removal activities in mouse hemolysates: catalase activity and hydrogen peroxide removal activity by hemoglobin. (31/34)

Hydrogen peroxide removal activities in normal and acatalasemic mouse hemolysates were examined to determine the optimal temperature of catalase. From thermal stability of the removal activities in hemolysates, the removal activities were divided into two activities. The removal activity deactivated at lower temperature was catalase, and the 50% inactivation was observed after 10 min incubation at 47.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C for normal hemolysates and 34.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C for acatalasemic ones. The removal activity deactivated at a higher temperature remained after the addition of sodium azide, and the 50% inactivation was observed at 63.5 +/- 1.4 degrees C. After separation of the removal activities by carboxymethyl-cellulose column chromatography, the removal activity deactivated at higher temperature was attributed to the activity by hemoglobin. From Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of the removal rates by hemoglobin at 37 degrees C, the Michaelis constant for hydrogen peroxide and the maximum velocity were 201 +/- 53 microM and 5.37 +/- 1.39 micromol/s per g of Hb, respectively. Removal rates by hemoglobin in mouse hemolysates at 37 degrees C in 70 microM hydrogen peroxide were 1.32 +/- 0.12 micromol/s per g of Hb. Catalase activity (k/g Hb: rate constant related to the hemoglobin content) in normal mouse hemolysates was 104 +/- 12 at 25 degrees C and 117 +/- 10 at 37 degrees C, and that in acatalasemic hemolysates was 10.5 +/- 1.7 at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that activity of hydrogen peroxide removal by hemoglobin is substantial and the activity in acatalasemic hemolysates is predominant at low concentration of hydrogen peroxide.  (+info)

Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, catalase, MrgA, and superoxide dismutase are not involved in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to heat or oxidizing agents. (32/34)

Only a single superoxide dismutase (SodA) was detected in Bacillus subtilis, and growing cells of a sodA mutant exhibited paraquat sensitivity as well as a growth defect and reduced survival at an elevated temperature. However, the sodA mutation had no effect on the heat or hydrogen peroxide resistance of wild-type spores or spores lacking the two major DNA protective alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble, spore proteins (termed alpha(-)beta(-) spores). Spores also had only a single catalase (KatX), as the two catalases found in growing cells (KatA and KatB) were absent. While a katA mutation greatly decreased the hydrogen peroxide resistance of growing cells, as found previously, katA, katB, and katX mutations had no effect on the heat or hydrogen peroxide resistance of wild-type or alpha(-)beta(-) spores. Inactivation of the mrgA gene, which codes for a DNA-binding protein that can protect growing cells against hydrogen peroxide, also had no effect on spore hydrogen peroxide resistance. Inactivation of genes coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, which has been shown to decrease growing cell resistance to alkyl hydroperoxides, had no effect on spore resistance to such compounds or on spore resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. However, Western blot analysis showed that at least one alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit was present in spores. Together these results indicate that proteins that play a role in the resistance of growing cells to oxidizing agents play no role in spore resistance. A likely reason for this lack of a protective role for spore enzymes is the inactivity of enzymes within the dormant spore.  (+info)