A novel skeletal dysplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans is caused by a Lys650Met mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. (1/88)

We have identified a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) missense mutation in four unrelated individuals with skeletal dysplasia that approaches the severity observed in thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1). However, three of the four individuals developed extensive areas of acanthosis nigricans beginning in early childhood, suffer from severe neurological impairments, and have survived past infancy without prolonged life-support measures. The FGFR3 mutation (A1949T: Lys650Met) occurs at the nucleotide adjacent to the TD type II (TD2) mutation (A1948G: Lys650Glu) and results in a different amino acid substitution at a highly conserved codon in the kinase domain activation loop. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 mutant constructs show that the Lys650Met mutation causes a dramatic increase in constitutive receptor kinase activity, approximately three times greater than that observed with the Lys650Glu mutation. We refer to the phenotype caused by the Lys650Met mutation as "severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans" (SADDAN) because it differs significantly from the phenotypes of other known FGFR3 mutations.  (+info)

Clearance of acanthosis nigricans associated with the HAIR-AN syndrome after partial pancreatectomy: an 11-year follow-up. (2/88)

We describe a woman with the syndrome characterised by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans (the HAIR-AN syndrome), and an associated insulinoma (islet B-cell tumour), whose signs and symptoms cleared after partial pancreatectomy.  (+info)

A quantitative scale of acanthosis nigricans. (3/88)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a scale for acanthosis nigricans (AN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were participants from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study and the San Antonio Family Heart Study. A total of 406 subjects were independently examined for AN by at least two observers. Five locations were examined: the neck, axilla, elbows, knuckles, and knees. Interobserver concordance and kappa statistics were calculated to determine replicability of the scale. Comparisons of diabetes-related risk factors by AN score were also calculated. RESULTS: Only the neck had consistently high kappa statistics, and thus, other locations were excluded from further analyses. Elevated AN was strongly associated with elevated fasting insulin and BMI in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Elevated AN was also strongly associated with elevated fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and with decreased HDL in nondiabetic subjects. In diabetic subjects, elevated AN was associated with elevated total cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a scale for AN that is easy to use, has high interobserver reliability in Mexican Americans, and correlates well with fasting insulin and BMI. This scale will permit longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation of AN and will permit the evaluation of AN as a trait in genetic studies.  (+info)

Highly activated Fgfr3 with the K644M mutation causes prolonged survival in severe dwarf mice. (4/88)

Several gain-of-function mutations in a receptor tyrosine kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), cause dwarfism in humans. Two particularly severe dwarfisms, thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TDII) and severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN), are associated with glutamic acid (E) and methionine (M) substitutions at the K650 residue in the kinase domain. TDII is lethal at birth, whereas most of the SADDAN patients survive the perinatal period. However, FGFR3 with the SADDAN mutation is more activated than FGFR3 with the TDII mutation in vitro. To find out whether the K650M mutation also causes the SADDAN phenotype, we introduced the corresponding point mutation (K644M) into the mouse Fgfr3 gene. Heterozygous mutant mice show a phenotype similar to human SADDAN, e.g. the majority of the SADDAN mice survive the perinatal period. This suggests that the survival of SADDAN patients is indeed attributed to the K650M mutation in FGFR3. The long bone abnormalities in SADDAN mice are milder than the TDII model. In addition, overgrowth of the cartilaginous tissues is observed in the rib cartilage, trachea and nasal septum. The FGF ligand at the low concentration differentially activates Map kinase in primary chondrocyte cultures from wild-type and SADDAN mice. Comparisons of the molecular bases of the phenotypic differences in SADDAN and TDII mice may increase our understanding of the factors that influence the severity in these two related skeletal dysplasias.  (+info)

HAIR-AN syndrome: a multisystem challenge. (5/88)

HAIR-AN syndrome is an acronym for an unusual multisystem disorder in women that consists of hyperandrogenism (HA), insulin resistance (IR) and acanthosis nigricans (AN). The precipitating abnormality is thought to be insulin resistance, with a secondary increase in insulin levels and subsequent overproduction of androgens in the ovaries. Long periods of hyperinsulinism and, some suspect, hyperandrogenism can result in the cutaneous manifestation of acanthosis nigricans. Patients are often concerned about the physical manifestations of this disorder, including virilization and acanthosis nigricans, and may be less aware of systemic problems. Physicians should assess women with these problems for an underlying endocrine abnormality. Although a treatment regimen for the HAIR-AN syndrome has not been established, antiandrogen therapy and weight loss are useful.  (+info)

Association of acanthosis nigricans with race and metabolic disturbances in obese women. (6/88)

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) has been recognized as a marker of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. We have compared frequency of race and metabolic disturbances in obese women with several degrees of AN (AN group, N = 190) to a group without AN (non-AN group, N = 61) from a mixed racial population. The groups were similar regarding age and body mass index. All patients (except the diabetic patients) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g). The racial distribution of this population was 35.1% white, 37.8% mulatto and 27.1% black and the frequency of AN was 62.5, 82.1 and 83.8%, respectively, higher in black versus white (P = 0.003) and mulatto versus white (P = 0.002) women. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance were 5.8 and 12.6% in the AN group and 1.6 and 8.2% in the non-AN group, respectively (P>0.05). Fasting glucose, beta cell function determined by the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA), fasting insulin and insulin area under the curve were similar for the AN and non-AN groups. A higher HOMA insulin resistance was observed in the AN group compared to the non-AN group (P = 0.02) and in the subgroup of highest degree of AN compared to those with other degrees. The mean lipid levels and the frequency of dyslipidemia were similar for the two groups. AN was strongly associated with the black or mulatto rather than the white race, even after taking into account the effect of age, body mass index and HOMA insulin resistance.  (+info)

Gamma-linolenic acid in borage oil reverses epidermal hyperproliferation in guinea pigs. (7/88)

As dietary sources of gamma-linolenic acid [GLA; 18:3(n-6)], borage oil (BO; 24-25 g/100 g GLA) and evening primrose oil (PO; 8-10 g/100 g GLA) are efficacious in treating skin disorders. The triglycerol stereospecificity of these oils is distinct, with GLA being concentrated in the sn-2 position of BO and in the sn-3 position of PO. To determine whether the absolute level and/or the triglycerol stereospecificity of GLA in oils affect biological efficacy, epidermal hyperproliferation was induced in guinea pigs by a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) diet for 8 wk. Subsequently, guinea pigs were fed diets of PO, BO or a mixture of BO and safflower oil (SO) for 2 wk. The mixture of BO and SO (BS) diet had a similar level of GLA as PO but with sn-2 stereospecificity. As controls, two groups were fed SO and HCO for 10 wk. Epidermal hyperproliferation was reversed by all three oils in the order of BO > BS > PO. However, proliferation scores of group PO were higher than of the normal control group, SO. The accumulations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [DGLA; 20:3(n-6)], an elongase product of GLA, into phospholipids and ceramides, of 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE), the potent antiproliferative metabolite of DGLA, and of ceramides, the major lipid maintaining epidermal barrier, in the epidermis of group BO were greater than of groups BS and PO. Group BS had higher levels of DGLA, 15-HETrE and ceramides than group PO. With primary dependence on absolute levels, our data demonstrate that the antiproliferative efficacy of GLA in the epidermis is preferably exerted from sn-2 stereospecificity of GLA in BO.  (+info)

An incomplete from of acanthosis nigricans. (8/88)

The authors report a variation of the clinical picture of acanthosis nigricans in two patients with carcinoma of the stomach.  (+info)