Two new 2'-oxygenated flavones from Andrographis elongata.
Two new 2'-oxygenated flavones, 5,2',6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (3) and skullcapflavone I 2'-O-beta-D-(4"-E-cinnamyl) glucopyranoside (5), together with three known flavones, 7-O-methylwogonin (1), skullcapflavone I (2) and skullcapflavone I 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) were isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis elongata, and the structures were elucidated by FAB-MS and one- and two-dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR spectral studies including 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments, and chemical studies. (+info)
Elenoside, a new cytotoxic drug, with cardiac and extracardiac activity.
This paper deals with the effects of elenoside, (3-hidroxymethyl-1-methoxy-5,6-methylene-dioxy-4-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-naf toic acid lactone-beta-D-glucoside) an arylnaphthalene lignan with broad spectrum cytotoxicity in a human tumor cell line panel, isolated from Justicia hyssopifolia (Acanthaceae) grown in the Canary Islands (Spain), on isolated cardiac auricle of rabbits, urinary excretion of rats, and on isolated rat ileum. These effects, using a vehicle (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-Tween 80 (40:10:50:2) as a standard, are presented. Elenoside at concentrations of 3.2x10(-4), 6.4 x 10(-4), and 1.2 x 10(-3) M produced an increase in the contraction force of auricles in a concentration-dependent way. At doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, an antidiuretic effect and a decrease in sodium excretion were observed. Elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10(-4), 6.4 x 10(-4) and 1.2 x 10(-3) M produced an increase in the contraction force of ileum in a concentration-dependent manner. Elenoside produced the concentration dependent inhibition of 86Rb uptake. These results indicate that elenoside has digitalis-like activity similar to mammalian lignans. Moreover, this lignan has an irritant effect on the gastrointestinal tract. (+info)
Biotransformation of 2-benzoxazolinone and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one by endophytic fungi isolated from Aphelandra tetragona.
The biotransformation of the phytoanticipins 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA) by four endophytic fungi isolated from Aphelandra tetragona was studied. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, several new products of acylation, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and nitration were identified. Fusarium sambucinum detoxified BOA and HBOA to N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)malonamic acid. Plectosporium tabacinum, Gliocladium cibotii, and Chaetosphaeria sp. transformed HBOA to 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)acetamide, N-(2-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetamide, 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, 2-acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, and 2-(N-hydroxy)acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one. BOA was not degraded by these three fungal isolates. Using 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)[(13)C(2)]acetamide, it was shown that the metabolic pathway for HBOA and BOA degradation leads to o-aminophenol as a key intermediate. (+info)
Activity of the amidoamine myristamidopropyl dimethylamine against keratitis pathogens.
OBJECTIVES: Microbial keratitis accounts for up to 30% of blindness in some less developed societies. The development of a single broad-spectrum topical antimicrobial effective against bacteria, fungi and Acanthamoeba would have a major impact on reducing the morbidity and simplifying the treatment of microbial keratitis. To this end, the activity of the amidoamine myristamidopropyl dimethylamine (MAPD) was investigated against common causes of microbial keratitis. METHODS: Challenge test assays were used to study the efficacy of 50 mg/L MAPD against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. RESULTS: MAPD gave a 3.7 log kill of P. aeruginosa after 60 min, 5.4 log for S. aureus by 45 min and 5 log for C. albicans and F. solani within 15 min. A. polyphaga cysts were reduced by 4 log within 120 min. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study confirm that MAPD is an effective Acanthamoeba cysticidal agent and extend the observation to demonstrate that it also possesses excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity. MAPD may represent a broad-spectrum therapeutic antimicrobial for keratitis and surgical prophylaxis and deserves further evaluation in these roles. (+info)
New aliphatic alcohol and (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides from Acanthus ilicifolius.
From the aerial parts of Acanthus ilicifolius, a new aliphatic alcohol glycoside (ilicifolioside C) and two new (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides, (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"-->2')-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidations were based on the analyses of spectroscopic data. Z-Form 4-coumaric acid glycosides were first isolated from plant. (+info)
Sulfur-containing compounds from Clinacanthus siamensis.
Two new sulfur-containing compounds, trans-3-methylsulfonyl-2-propenol (1) and trans-3-methylsulfinyl-2-propenol (2) were isolated together with trans-3-methylthioacrylamide (3), entadamide A (4) and entadamide C (5) from the leaves of Clinacanthus siamensis. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data. The compounds were tested for antimalarial and antimycobacterial activity. (+info)
Cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol from Clinacanthus nutans.
A mixture of nine cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol were separated from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-beta-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised a common long-chain base, (2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol with nine 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C(16), C(18), C(20-26)) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglyceride was characterized as (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. (+info)
Justicidone, a novel p-quinone-lignan derivative from Justicia hyssopifolia.
An uncommon, previously unreported p-quinone-lignan compound called justicidone (4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-c]furan-1,5,8(3H)-trione) (2), along with the known savinin (1) were isolated from Justicia hyssopifolia (Acanthaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. (+info)