Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov., isolated from leguminous trees in Sudan and Kenya.
SDS-PAGE of total bacterial proteins was applied to the classification of 25 Sudanese and five Kenyan strains isolated from the root nodules of Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. Twenty strains were also studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and the whole 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from two strains representing the two major clusters. These results, together with the previously reported numerical taxonomy analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis studies, DNA-DNA dot-blot hybridization, genomic fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based PCR, DNA base composition analysis, DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and RFLP analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene, showed that all 30 strains belong to the genus Sinorhizobium. Two of the strains grouped with Sinorhizobium saheli and seven with Sinorhizobium terangae, while the rest did not cluster with any of the established species. The majority of the strains formed two phenotypically and genotypically distinct groups and we therefore propose that these strains should be classified as two new species, Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov. (+info)
High relatedness and inbreeding at the origin of eusociality in gall-inducing thrips.
Within the haplodiploid eusocial gall-inducing thrips, a species-level phylogeny combined with genetic data for five eusocial species enables an inference of levels of relatedness and inbreeding values for lineages at the origin of eusociality. Character optimization using data from five eusocial species indicates that the lineage or lineages where eusociality is inferred to have originated exhibit relatedness of 0.64-0.92, and F(IS) of 0.33-0.64. The high inbreeding coefficients found in these eusocial thrips have increased relatedness among and within both sexes and have reduced the haplodiploidy-induced relatedness asymmetries [Hamilton, W. D. (1964) J. Theor. Biol. 7, 1-52]. These results indicate that unusually high relatedness is associated with the origin of eusociality, and they suggest a role for inbreeding in the evolution of bisexual helping. (+info)
Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set.
In central New South Wales, Australia, flowers of Acacia brachybotrya and Eremophila glabra plants growing in linear vegetation remnants received less pollen than conspecifics in nearby reserves. Pollen supplementation increased fruit production by both species, indicating pollen limitation of fruit set. Together these observations explain why fruit production by these species was depressed in linear-strip populations relative to nearby reserves. This study confirms that habitat fragmentation can lead to decline in pollination and subsequent fruit set in wild plant populations. Disrupted pollination interactions of the kind documented in this study may offer a substantial challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. (+info)
Bradyrhizobium sp. Strains that nodulate the leguminous tree Acacia albida produce fucosylated and partially sulfated nod factors.
We determined the structures of Nod factors produced by six different Bradyrhizobium sp. strains nodulating the legume tree Acacia albida (syn. Faidherbia albida). Compounds from all strains were found to be similar, i.e., O-carbamoylated and substituted by an often sulfated methyl fucose and different from compounds produced by Rhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Sinorhizobium strains nodulating other species of the Acaciae tribe. (+info)
Small-subunit rRNA genotyping of rhizobia nodulating Australian Acacia spp.
The structure of rhizobial communities nodulating Acacia in southeastern Australia from south Queensland to Tasmania was investigated by a molecular approach. A total of 118 isolates from nodule samples from 13 different Acacia species collected at 44 sites were characterized by small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Nine rhizobial genomospecies were identified, and these taxa corresponded to previously described genomospecies (B. Lafay and J. J. Burdon, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3989-3997, 1998). Eight of these genomospecies belonged to the Bradyrhizobium lineage and accounted for 96.6% of the isolates. The remaining genomospecies corresponded to Rhizobium tropici. For analysis of geographic patterns, results were grouped into five latitudinal regions regardless of host origin. In each region, as observed previously for rhizobial isolates taken from non-Acacia legumes (Lafay and Burdon, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3989-3997, 1998), rhizobial communities were dominated by one or two genomospecies, the identities of which varied from place to place. Despite this similarity in patterns, the most abundant genomospecies for Acacia isolates differed from the genomospecies found in the non-Acacia-derived rhizobial collection, suggesting that there is a difference in nodulation patterns of the Mimosoideae and the Papilionoideae. Only two genomospecies were both widespread and relatively abundant across the range of sites sampled. Genomospecies A was found in all regions except the most northern sites located in Queensland, whereas genomospecies B was not detected in Tasmania. This suggests that genomospecies A might be restricted to the more temperate regions of Australia, whereas in contrast, genomospecies B occurs in different climatic and edaphic conditions across the whole continent. The latter hypothesis is supported by the presence of genomospecies B in southwestern Australia, based on partial SSU rDNA sequence data (N. D. S. Marsudi, A. R. Glenn, and M. J. Dilworth, Soil Biol. Biochem. 31:1229-1238, 1998). (+info)
Triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham) decrease tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.
This report describes the isolation and partial purification of novel triterpenoid saponins [Fraction 35 (F035)] and two pure biologically active derivatives (termed avicins D and G) from Acacia victoriae, an Australian desert tree of the Leguminosae family. F035 and the avicins markedly inhibited the growth of several tumor cell lines with minimum growth inhibition in human foreskin fibroblasts, mouse fibroblasts, and immortalized breast epithelial cells at similar concentrations. F035 and the avicins induced cell cycle (G1) arrest of the human MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell line and apoptosis of the Jurkat (T-cell leukemia) and the MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line. The triterpenoid saponins also partially inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in Jurkat T cells in a time-dependent manner and phosphorylation in the downstream protein Akt, whereas no affect was seen on the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. These observations as well as other work from our laboratory demonstrating mitochondrial perturbation, chemoprevention, and inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB suggest that triterpenoid saponins from A. victoriae have potential as novel anticancer agents. Recent work linking Akt signaling with glucose metabolism, stress resistance, and longevity suggests other potential applications of these compounds. (+info)
Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), suppress H-ras mutations and aneuploidy in a murine skin carcinogenesis model.
We tested the ability of avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins obtained from Acacia victoriae (Bentham) (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), to inhibit chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Varying doses of avicins were applied to shaved dorsal skin of SENCAR mice 15 min before application of 100 nmol of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) twice a week for 4 weeks (complete carcinogenesis model). The dorsal skin of a second group of mice was treated with one dose of 10 nmol of DMBA. Avicins were then applied 15 min before repetitive doses of 2 microg of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) twice a week for 8 weeks (initiation/promotion model). At 12 weeks, avicins produced a 70% decrease in the number of mice with papillomas and a greater than 90% reduction in the number of papillomas per mouse in both protocols. We also observed a 62% and 74% reduction by avicins in H-ras mutations at codon 61 in the DMBA and DMBA/TPA models, respectively, as well as a significant inhibition of the modified DNA base formation (8-OH-dG) in both protocols. Marked suppression of aneuploidy occurred with treatment at 16 weeks in the initiation/promotion experiment. These findings, when combined with the proapoptotic property of these compounds and their ability to inhibit hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction reported elsewhere, suggest that avicins could prove exciting in reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress and thereby suppressing the development of human skin cancer and other epithelial malignancies. (+info)
Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), inhibit activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by inhibiting both its nuclear localization and ability to bind DNA.
Triterpenoid saponins, which are present in leguminous plants and some marine animals, possess a broad range of biological actions. We have earlier reported the extraction of avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins obtained from the Australian desert tree Acacia victoriae (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) that inhibit tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis, in part, by perturbing mitochondrial function. These saponins have also been found to prevent chemical-induced carcinogenesis in mice. This study examines the effect of a triterpene mixture (F094) and a single molecular species (avicin G) isolated from the mixture on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in Jurkat cells (human T cell leukemia). Both F094 and avicin G were found to be potent inhibitors of TNF-induced NF-kappaB. Treatment of Jurkat cells with avicin G resulted in a much slower accumulation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB into the nucleus whereas the degradation of IkappaBalpha was unaffected. Avicin G also impaired the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in in vitro binding assays. Treatment of cells with DTT totally reversed the avicin G-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups critical for NF-kappaB activation were being affected. Avicin G treatment resulted in decreased expression of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Thus, the avicins may prove important for reducing both oxidative and nitrosative cellular stress and thereby suppressing the development of malignancies and related diseases. (+info)