(1/2834) Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen. (+info)
(2/2834) Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits.
We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator. (+info)
(3/2834) Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft. (+info)
(4/2834) Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-mo periods with and without physical training.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of physical training on plasma leptin concentrations in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of 4-mo periods with and without physical training on leptin in obese children and to explore the determinants of leptin at baseline and in response to physical training. DESIGN: Participants were 34 obese 7-11-y-old children randomly assigned to engage in physical training during either the first or second 4 mo of the 8-mo study. RESULTS: Total body composition, visceral adiposity, and insulin were all positively correlated with leptin at baseline (P < or = 0.05); however, only fat mass was retained in the final stepwise regression (P = 0.0001, R2 = 0.57). Leptin decreased during the 4-mo periods of physical training and increased in the 4 mo after cessation of physical training (P < 0.001 for the time by group interaction). Decreases in leptin were greatest in children with higher pretraining leptin concentrations, those whose total mass increased least, and those whose insulin concentrations decreased most (P < or = 0.05); only pretraining leptin concentration (P = 0.009) and change in total mass (P = 0.0002) were retained in the final regression (R2 = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In obese children, leptin concentration decreased during 4 mo of physical training and increased during a subsequent 4-mo period without physical training, fat mass was highly correlated with baseline leptin, and greater reductions in leptin during 4 mo of physical training were seen in children with higher pretraining leptin and in those whose total mass increased least. (+info)
(5/2834) Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat.
This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice. (+info)
(6/2834) Bone densitometry at a district general hospital: evaluation of service by doctors and patients.
OBJECTIVE: To assess doctors' and patients' views about a district general hospital bone densitometry service and to examine existing practice to influence future provision. DESIGN: Three postal surveys: (a) of doctors potentially using the service, (b) of patients undergoing a bone densitometry test during a six month period, and (c) of the referring doctors of the patients undergoing the test. SETTING: Bone densitometry service at South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough and two district health authorities: South Tees and Northallerton. SUBJECTS: All general practitioners (n=201) and hospital consultants in general medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics, radio therapy and oncology, haematology, and radiology (n=61); all patients undergoing an initial bone densitometry test (n=309) during a six month period; and their referring doctors. MAIN MEASURES: Service awareness and use, knowledge of clinical indications, test results, influence of test results on patient management, satisfaction with the service and its future provision. RESULTS: The overall response rates for the three surveys were 87%, 70%, and 61%. There was a high awareness of the service among doctors and patients; 219(84%) doctors were aware and 155 of them (71%) had used it, and patients often (40%) suggested the test to their doctor. The test was used for a range of reasons including screening although the general use was consistent with current guidelines. Two hundred (65%) bone densitometry measurements were normal, 71(23%) were low normal, and 38(12%) were low. Although doctors reported that management of patients had been influenced by the test results, the algorithm for decision making was unclear. Patients and doctors were satisfied with the service and most (n=146, 68%) doctors wanted referral guidelines for the service. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high awareness of, use of, and satisfaction with the service. Patients were being referred for a range of reasons and a few of these could not be justified, many tests were normal, and clinical decision making was not always influenced by the test result. It is concluded that bone densitometry services should be provided but only for patients whose management will be influenced by test results and subject to guidelines to ensure appropriate use of the technology. (+info)
(7/2834) Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 2 distinct ethnic groups: Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women.
BACKGROUND: Although people from the Indian subcontinent have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), studies of such in Indian and Pakistani women living in the United States are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study accounted for variability in serum lipid (total cholesterol and triacylglycerol) and lipoprotein [LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and HDL cholesterol] concentrations in Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women in the United States. Body composition, regional fat distribution, dietary intake, and energy expenditure were compared between groups. DESIGN: The 2 groups were 47 Indian and Pakistani and 47 American women. Health was assessed via medical history, physical activity, body composition (via anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), dietary intake (via 7-d food records), and serum lipids. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol were greater (P <0.03), whereas HDL-cholesterol values were lower (P = 0.011) in Indians and Pakistanis than in Americans. Multiple regression analysis indicated that approximately 18% of the variance in total cholesterol (P = 0.0010) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0009) was accounted for by ethnicity, energy expenditure, and the ratio of the sum of central to the sum of peripheral skinfold thicknesses. Ethnicity, sum of central skinfold thicknesses, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intake accounted for approximately 43% of the variance in triacylglycerol concentration (P < 0.0001). Monounsaturated fat, percentage body fat, and alcohol intake accounted for approximately 26% of variance in HDL cholesterol. Ethnicity contributed approximately 22% of the 25% overall variance in lipoprotein(a). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that these Indian and Pakistani women are at higher CVD risk than their American counterparts, but that increasing their physical activity is likely to decrease overall and regional adiposity, thereby improving their serum lipid profiles. (+info)
(8/2834) Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones, riboflavin, riboflavin cofactors, and organic acids were assessed in girls with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of malnutrition and low thyroid hormone concentrations on erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin metabolism and their relation with urinary organic acid excretion. DESIGN: Seventeen adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 14.8 +/- 2.2] and 17 age-matched, healthy girls (control subjects; BMI: 20.5 +/- 2.2) took part in the feeding study. Erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin as well as riboflavin cofactors (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) were assessed by HPLC, whereas urinary organic acids were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Anorectic patients who began a feeding program had higher erythrocyte riboflavin (3.5 +/- 2.2 compared with <0.1 nmol/mol hemoglobin; P < 0.001), lower plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide (57.8 +/- 18.5 compared with 78.5 +/- 54.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and higher urinary ethylmalonic acid (7.12 +/- 4.39 compared with 1.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) and isovalerylglycine (7.65 +/- 4.78 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.9 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.05) concentrations than did control subjects. Triiodothyronine concentrations were low and negatively correlated with plasma riboflavin concentrations (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Not all patients showed improvements in these biochemical indexes after 30 d of refeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low triiodothyronine concentrations observed in anorexia nervosa could alter the extent of riboflavin conversion into cofactors, thus leading to high erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, low plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, and high rates of ethylmalonic acid and isovalerylglycine excretion. (+info)