(1/490) A new strategy for the surgical treatment of aortic coarctation associated with ventricular septal defect in infants using an absorbable pulmonary artery band.
OBJECTIVES: We propose a new strategy using coarctation repair together with a polidioxanone absorbable pulmonary artery banding to limit operative risk and to spare infants with aortic coarctation subsequent operations. BACKGROUND: The alternative for the surgical management of aortic coarctation associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD) is single-stage repair versus coarctation repair with or without banding of the pulmonary artery. METHODS: Eleven infants (mean weight 2,560 +/- 1,750 g, range 1,320 to 3,800 g) underwent a coarctation repair with a polydioxanone banding. Seven had a trabecular and four a perimembranous VSD. The mean size of the VSD was 5 +/- 0.7 mm (range 4 to 7 mm). The systolic pulmonary pressure was >80% of the aortic pressure in all. The pulmonary band was tightened until the systolic pulmonary pressure fell below 50% of the aortic pressure. RESULTS: There were no hospital deaths. The reabsorption of the banding was complete after 5.7 months in all patients (3 to 6.5 months). The VSD closed completely in four infants and partially in six, in whom the pulmonary artery pressure was normal without evidence for significant left-to-right shunt. One patient with a large trabecular VSD underwent surgical closure of his defect after four months. Finally, a subsequent open-heart surgery could be avoided in 91% (10/11) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Provided the VSD belongs to types prone to close spontaneously, this policy may reduce the number of surgical procedures per infant as well as in-hospital mortality and morbidity rates. It should be proposed as an alternative to more complex procedures. (+info)
(2/490) Rotational acetabular osteotomy using biodegradable internal fixation.
We used biodegradable poly-L-lactide screws in rotational acetabular osteotomy in 41 hips of 41 patients, and studied the complications after an average follow-up of 4.9 years (range 1.0-7.7 years). There were 39 females and 2 males, their average age at the time of the operation was 32 years (range 12-55 years). A small subcutaneous abscess appeared around the non-absorbable sutures in 2 patients after surgery. There was 1 case of thrombophlebitis and 1 of local dermatitis. The small subcutaneous abscess resolved after the removal of the suture material in the 2 cases, and the thrombophlebitis resolved with aspirin. The local dermatitis persisted but was cured by local steroid therapy over 5.8 years. The incidence of local dermatitis after the use of biodegradable implants should be further investigated. (+info)
(3/490) Inhibition of neointima formation after experimental coronary artery stenting: a new biodegradable stent coating releasing hirudin and the prostacyclin analogue iloprost.
BACKGROUND: To minimize acute stent thrombosis and development of restenosis, stents coated with biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers have been proposed to serve as sustained-release drug carriers. METHODS AND RESULTS: In both a sheep and a pig model, we examined the vascular response to standard and high-pressure implantation of coronary Palmaz-Schatz stents coated with a 10-microm layer of polylactic acid (MW 30 kDa) releasing recombinant polyethylene glycol (r-PEG)-hirudin and the prostacyclin analogue iloprost, both drugs with antithrombotic and potentially antiproliferative effects. Study observation time was 28 days. Between the corresponding stent groups, no differences were observed with regard to preplacement and postplacement implantation parameters. The morphometric analysis demonstrated that the coating was associated with a greater lumen diameter through a reduction in the mean restenosis area by 22.9% (P<0.02) in the standard-pressure model (sheep) and by 24.8% (P<0.02) in the overstretch pig model compared with uncoated control stents without inducing a local inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study demonstrate beneficial effects of a polymeric stent coating with polylactic acid releasing r-PEG-hirudin and iloprost on the development of restenosis after coronary stent placement at 4 weeks, independent of the extent of vascular injury. Future studies are proposed to investigate the integration of other substances to further enhance the potential of the stent coating on reducing neointimal formation. (+info)
(4/490) In situ tumor vaccination with interleukin-12-encapsulated biodegradable microspheres: induction of tumor regression and potent antitumor immunity.
An alternative technology for the local and sustained delivery of cytokines to tumors for cancer immunotherapy was evaluated and shown here to induce tumor regression, suppression of metastasis, and development of systemic antitumor immunity. Treatment of tumor-bearing BALB/c mice with a single intratumoral injection of biodegradable polylactic acid microspheres loaded with recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) promoted complete regression of the primary tumor and prevented the metastatic spread to the lung. Mice that experienced tumor regression after being treated rejected a subsequent challenge with live tumor cells, which indicated the development of systemic antitumor immunity. In situ tumor vaccination, ie., injection of IL-12 microspheres into existing tumors, was superior to vaccination of mice with mixtures of tumor cells (live or irradiated) and IL-12 microspheres in inducing systemic antitumor immunity. The sustained release of IL-12 from the microspheres was superior to bolus injection of free IL-12, and intratumoral delivery of microspheres was more effective than other routes of administration. These studies establish the utility of biodegradable polymer microspheres as a clinically feasible alternative to systemic cytokine therapy and cytokine gene-modified cell vaccines for the treatment of neoplastic disease. (+info)
(5/490) Soluble biodegradable polymer-based cytokine gene delivery for cancer treatment.
Transgene expression and tumor regression after direct injection of plasmid DNA encoding cytokine genes, such as mIL-12 and mIFN-gamma, remain very low. The objective of this study is to develop nontoxic biodegradable polymer-based cytokine gene delivery systems, which should enhance mIL-12 expression, increasing the likelihood of complete tumor elimination. We synthesized poly[alpha-(4-aminobutyl)-l-glycolic acid] (PAGA), a biodegradable nontoxic polymer, by melting condensation. Plasmids used in this study encoded luciferase (pLuc) and murine interleukin-12 (pmIL-12) genes. PAGA/plasmid complexes were prepared at different (+/-) charge ratios and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, osmolality, surface morphology, and cytotoxicity. Polyplexes prepared by complexing PAGA with pmIL-12 as well as pLuc were used for transfection into cultured CT-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells as well as into CT-26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. The in vitro and in vivo transfection efficiency was determined by luciferase assay (for pLuc), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (for mIL-12, p70, and p40), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (for Luc and mIL-12 p35). PAGA condensed and protected plasmids from nuclease degradation. The mean particle size and zeta potential of the polyplexes prepared in 5% (w/v) glucose at 3:1 (+/-) charge ratio were approximately 100 nm and 20 mV, respectively. The surface characterization of polyplexes as determined by atomic force microscopy showed complete condensation of DNA with an ellipsoidal structure in Z direction. The levels of mIL-12 p40, mIL-12 p70, and mIFN-gamma were significantly higher for PAGA/pmIL-12 complexes compared to that of naked pmIL-12. This is in good agreement with RT-PCR data, which showed significant levels of mIL-12 p35 expression. The PAGA/pmIL-12 complexes did not induce any cytotoxicity in CT-26 cells as evidenced by 3- inverted question mark4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl inverted question mark-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and showed enhanced antitumor activity in vivo compared to naked pmIL-12. PAGA/pmIL-12 complexes are nontoxic and significantly enhance mIL-12 expression at mRNA and protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. (+info)
(6/490) Early in vivo experience with tissue-engineered trileaflet heart valves.
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is a new approach in which techniques are being developed to transplant autologous cells onto biodegradable scaffolds to ultimately form new functional autologous tissue. Workers at our laboratory have focused on tissue engineering of heart valves. The present study was designed to evaluate the implantation of a whole trileaflet tissue-engineered heart valve in the pulmonary position in a lamb model. METHODS AND RESULTS: We constructed a biodegradable and biocompatible trileaflet heart valve scaffold that was fabricated from a porous polyhydroxyalkanoate (pore size 180 to 240 microm; Tepha Inc). Vascular cells were harvested from ovine carotid arteries, expanded in vitro, and seeded onto our heart valve scaffold. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the native pulmonary leaflets were resected, and 2-cm segments of pulmonary artery were replaced by autologous cell-seeded heart valve constructs (n=4). One animal received an acellular valved conduit. No animal received any anticoagulation therapy. Animals were killed at 1, 5, 13, and 17 weeks. Explanted valves were examined histologically with scanning electron microscopy, biochemically, and biomechanically. All animals survived the procedure. The valves showed minimal regurgitation, and valve gradients were <20 mm Hg on echocardiography. The maximum gradient was 10 mm Hg with direct pressures. Macroscopically, the tissue-engineered constructs were covered with tissue, and there was no thrombus formation on any of the specimens. Scanning electron microscopy showed smooth flow surfaces during the follow-up period. Histological examination demonstrated laminated fibrous tissue with predominant glycosaminoglycans as extracellular matrix. 4-Hydroxyproline assays demonstrated an increase in collagen content as a percentage of native pulmonary artery (1 week 45.8%, 17 weeks 116%). DNA assays showed a comparable number of cells in all explanted samples. There was no tissue formation in the acellular control. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue-engineered heart valve scaffolds fabricated from polyhydroxyalkanoates can be used for implantation in the pulmonary position with an appropriate function for 120 days in lambs. (+info)
(7/490) Functional living trileaflet heart valves grown in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Previous tissue engineering approaches to create heart valves have been limited by the structural immaturity and mechanical properties of the valve constructs. This study used an in vitro pulse duplicator system to provide a biomimetic environment during tissue formation to yield more mature implantable heart valves derived from autologous tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Trileaflet heart valves were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers and sequentially seeded with autologous ovine myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. The constructs were grown for 14 days in a pulse duplicator in vitro system under gradually increasing flow and pressure conditions. By use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the native pulmonary leaflets were resected, and the valve constructs were implanted into 6 lambs (weight 19+/-2.8 kg). All animals had uneventful postoperative courses, and the valves were explanted at 1 day and at 4, 6, 8, 16, and 20 weeks. Echocardiography demonstrated mobile functioning leaflets without stenosis, thrombus, or aneurysm up to 20 weeks. Histology (16 and 20 weeks) showed uniform layered cuspal tissue with endothelium. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent smooth valvular surface. Mechanical properties were comparable to those of native tissue at 20 weeks. Complete degradation of the polymers occurred by 8 weeks. Extracellular matrix content (collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin) and DNA content increased to levels of native tissue and higher at 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates in vitro generation of implantable complete living heart valves based on a biomimetic flow culture system. These autologous tissue-engineered valves functioned up to 5 months and resembled normal heart valves in microstructure, mechanical properties, and extracellular matrix formation. (+info)
(8/490) Scleral plug of biodegradable polymers containing ganciclovir for experimental cytomegalovirus retinitis.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a biodegradable scleral plug containing ganciclovir (GCV) in a rabbit model of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. METHODS: To develop a rabbit model for HCMV retinitis, HCMV solution was injected once into the vitreous cavity of pigmented rabbits. The treated animals were divided into three groups: group A received no treatment, group B was treated once with GCV solution, and group C was treated with a scleral plug containing GCV. Rabbits in group B received an intravitreal injection of GCV solution 1 week after HCMV inoculation. In group C, the scleral plug containing GCV was implanted in the vitreous of the rabbits 1 week after HCMV inoculation. Ophthalmoscopically, vitreoretinal findings in each group were graded from 0+ to 4+ every week for 4 weeks after HCMV injection. RESULTS: Eyes of group A rabbits showed whitish retinal exudates and vitreous opacities 3 days after HCMV inoculation. These materials increased gradually until 3 weeks after HCMV inoculation. Scores for vitreoretinal lesions were significantly lower in eyes of group B rabbits compared with those of group A at 1 week after GCV injection (P < 0.05). However, vitreoretinal inflammation in eyes of group B rabbits increased again thereafter, and no significant difference in inflammation between groups A and B was found 2 weeks after GCV injection. In eyes of group C, scores for vitreoretinal lesions were significantly lower compared with those in both group A and group B at 3 weeks after HCMV inoculation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that sustained release of GCV into the vitreous cavity with biodegradable scleral plugs was effective for the treatment of experimentally induced HCMV retinitis in rabbits. (+info)