Microscopic polyangiitis: clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients.
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and outcomes in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) who were enrolled in various clinical trials conducted by the French Vasculitis Study Group. METHODS: A cohort of 85 patients meeting the Chapel Hill criteria for MPA participated in the study. Seventy-one of them were included in prospective therapeutic trials. Eighty-one diagnoses were biopsy proven. In the other patients, diagnosis was based on clinical findings. RESULTS: Forty-seven men and 38 women, with a mean +/- SD age of 56.8 +/- 14.6 years, met the criteria for MPA. Their main clinical symptoms were renal manifestations (78.8%), weight loss (72.9%), skin involvement (62.4%), fever (55.3%), mononeuritis multiplex (57.6%), arthralgias (50.6%), myalgias (48.2%), hypertension (34.1%), lung involvement (24.7%; alveolar hemorrhage 11.8%), and cardiac failure (17.6%). The mean +/- SD serum creatinine level before treatment was 2.59 +/- 2.96 mg/dl; 47 patients had renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 1.36 mg/dl). Eight patients underwent dialysis at the time of diagnosis, and long-term dialysis was necessary for 10 patients. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were present in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%), of whom 33 had a perinuclear staining pattern (pANCA) and 5 had a cytoplasmic pattern. Antibodies to proteinase 3 were present in 4 patients and antibodies to myeloperoxidase were detected in 31, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 30 patients who underwent renal and celiac angiography, 4 had microaneurysms. Of the 29 patients (34.1%) who had relapses, 8 died during or after the relapse. During followup, 28 of the 85 patients (32.9%) died. The mean +/- SD duration of followup of the group was 69.9 +/- 60.6 months. Deaths were less frequent when patients had been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs (13 patients [24.1%]) than with steroids alone (15 patients [48.4%]) (P < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate was 74%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that MPA is a multisystemic disease in which renal symptoms are frequent, but the disease is also associated with general symptoms, arthritis, mononeuritis multiplex, and other manifestations that are also seen in various vasculitides. The rarity of abnormal angiogram findings and the high frequency of pANCA are characteristic of MPA. In most cases, the outcome is comparable with those of other systemic vasculitides, but relapses are frequent. (+info)
Splenic vein aneurysm: is it a surgical indication?
Splenic vein aneurysms are rare and are usually caused by portal hypertension. Symptoms are unusual, but may include rupture or abdominal pain. Diagnosis can usually be made either by means of duplex ultrasonography or computed tomography scanning. Treatment varies from noninvasive follow-up to aneurysm excision. We report an expanding splenic vein aneurysm in a young woman with abdominal and back pain and no history of portal hypertension. She was treated with aneurysm excision and splenectomy. (+info)
Chronic abdominal pain in childhood: diagnosis and management.
More than one third of children complain of abdominal pain lasting two weeks or longer. The diagnostic approach to abdominal pain in children relies heavily on the history provided by the parent and child to direct a step-wise approach to investigation. If the history and physical examination suggest functional abdominal pain, constipation or peptic disease, the response to an empiric course of medical management is of greater value than multiple "exclusionary" investigations. A symptom diary allows the child to play an active role in the diagnostic process. The medical management of constipation, peptic disease and inflammatory bowel disease involves nutritional strategies, pharmacologic intervention and behavior and psychologic support. (+info)
Simultaneous rupturing heterotopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis in an in-vitro fertilization twin pregnancy.
The presentation of acute abdominal pain in young women is not an unusual occurrence in casualty and gynaecology departments. Both acute appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy have to be considered and investigated, as these two conditions are accepted as the most common surgical causes of an acute abdomen. Difficulties in correctly identifying the cause of the pain can be hazardous to the patient and care needs to be taken in obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis enabling the most appropriate management. The case report presented here describes the extremely unusual occurrence of both these acute conditions happening simultaneously with the added complication of an ongoing twin pregnancy and it highlights the need to look beyond the most obvious diagnosis and always to expect the unexpected. (+info)
Successful laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion during week 25 of a twin pregnancy.
Adnexal torsion is a rare occurrence during pregnancy. Here we present a case of adnexal torsion during the 25th week of pregnancy, which was managed laparoscopically. The woman had achieved a successful twin pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. She was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound with colour Doppler mapping of the intra-ovarian blood flow showed adnexal torsion. Laparoscopic management was successfully carried out. (+info)
Unusual presentation of spinal cord compression related to misplaced pedicle screws in thoracic scoliosis.
Utilization of thoracic pedicle screws is controversial, especially in the treatment of scoliosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl seen 6 months after her initial surgery for scoliosis done elsewhere. She complained of persistent epigastric pain, tremor of the right foot at rest, and abnormal feelings in her legs. Clinical examination revealed mild weakness in the right lower extremity, a loss of thermoalgic discrimination, and a forward imbalance. A CT scan revealed at T8 and T10 that the right pedicle screws were misplaced by 4 mm in the spinal canal. At the time of the revision surgery the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) returned to normal after screw removal. The clinical symptoms resolved 1 month after the revision. The authors conclude that after pedicle instrumentation at the thoracic level a spinal cord compression should be looked for in case of subtle neurologic findings such as persistent abdominal pain, mild lower extremity weakness, tremor at rest, thermoalgic discrimination loss, or unexplained imbalance. (+info)
Abdominal pain as an atypical presentation of meningococcaemia.
An atypical presentation of meningococcaemia without purpura poses diagnostic problems. The importance of the identification of shock manifest as delayed capillary refill in two children with meningococcal septicaemia presenting with fever and abdominal pain is discussed. Abdominal pain is an unusual presentation of meningococcal disease. (+info)
Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: recurrent abdominal pain.
OBJECTIVE: To review the status of empirically supported treatments for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). METHODS: We identified studies based on literature search and contact with experts in the field and evaluated studies based on guidelines modified from the criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. RESULTS: Nine published intervention studies were identified that fell into three distinctive approaches: operant procedures, fiber treatments, and cognitive-behavioral treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Operant procedures did not meet even the most lenient category (promising intervention) of the guidelines. Fiber treatment for RAP associated with constipation met the criteria for a promising intervention. Cognitive-behavioral treatment met the criteria for a probably efficacious intervention. We discuss implications and offer recommendations for future intervention research. (+info)