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(1/459) Role of dexamethasone dosage in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists for prophylaxis of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Dexamethasone (20 mg) or its equivalent in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists appears to be the gold-standard dose for antiemetic prophylaxis. Additional to concerns about the use of corticosteroids with respect to enhanced tumour growth or impaired killing of the tumour cells, there is evidence that high-dosage dexamethasone impairs the control of delayed nausea and emesis, whereas lower doses appear more beneficial. To come closer to the most adequate dose, we started a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial investigating additional dosage of 8 or 20 mg dexamethasone to tropisetron (Navoban), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in cis-platinum-containing chemotherapy. After an interim analysis of 121 courses of chemotherapy in 69 patients, we have been unable to detect major differences between both treatment alternatives. High-dose dexamethasone (20 mg) had no advantage over medium-dose dexamethasone with respect to objective and subjective parameters of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting. In relation to concerns about the use of corticosteroids in non-haematological cancer chemotherapy, we suggest that 8 mg or its equivalent should be used in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists until further research proves otherwise.  (+info)

(2/459) Morphological variations in transplanted tumors developed by inoculation of spontaneous mesothelioma cell lines derived from F344 rats.

Morphological and immunohistochemical features of the abdominal mesotheliomas that were developed by inoculation of 3 cell lines (MeET-4, -5 and -6) established from spontaneous abdominal mesotheliomas in male F344 rats. Although the original tumors of three cell lines showed signs of epithelioid growth with a predominantly simple papillary pattern, transplanted tumors revealed a variety of morphologic features including epithelioid with glandular structures, sarcomatous, and a mixture of these components. All tumor cells of transplanted tumors were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) but almost negative for desmin as were epithelioid cells of the original tumors, and the cell lines were positive for desmin but not for ASMA. These results suggested that mesothelioma in the F344 rat had the potential for wide spectrum differentiation under in vitro conditions. The microenvironmental factors obtained in vivo can modify their potential ability and their morphological aspects. These factors may be related to tumor cell reexpression of ASMA of tumor cells that were masked under in vitro culture conditions.  (+info)

(3/459) Additional value of whole-body positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in recurrent colorectal cancer.

PURPOSE: To assess the additional value of the whole-body [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan as a staging modality complementing conventional diagnostic methods (CDM) in patients suspected of having recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 103 patients, the discordances between FDG-PET and CDM results were identified and related to the final diagnosis obtained by histopathology or clinical follow-up (> 1 year). All FDG-PET studies were reviewed with full knowledge of the CDM findings. RESULTS: In a region-based analysis, discordances between CDM and FDG-PET findings were found in 40 of 412 regions (10%). In these, FDG-PET had additional diagnostic value in 14 of 16 locoregional, six of seven hepatic, seven of eight abdominal, and eight of nine extra-abdominal regions. In a patient-based analysis, CDM categorized a subgroup of 60 patients as having resectable recurrent disease limited to the liver (n = 37) or locoregional region (n = 23). In 13 of these patients, there were discordant FDG-PET findings, detecting additional tumor sites in nine patients and excluding disease in three patients and yielding an additional diagnostic value in 20% of the patients. A second subgroup consisted of 13 patients with inconclusive CDM findings (n = 5) or with elevated plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels and an otherwise negative conventional work-up (n = 8). In these patients, FDG-PET results were correct in eight of nine discordances, yielding a positive additional diagnostic value in 62% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Whole-body FDG-PET can have a clear impact on the therapeutic management in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer.  (+info)

(4/459) Treatment of upper abdominal malignancies with organ cluster procedures.

Upper abdominal exenteration for upper abdominal malignancies was carried out in 15 patients with removal of the liver, spleen, pancreas, duodendum, all or part of the stomach, proximal jejunum and ascending and transverse colon. Organ replacement was with the liver, pancreas and duodenum plus, in some cases, a short segment of jejunum. Eleven of the 15 patients survived for more than 4 months; 2 died, after 61/2 and 10 months, of recurrent tumor. Of the 9 patients who are surviving after 61/2 to 14 months, recurrent tumor is suspected in only 1 and proven in none. Four patients with sarcomas and carcinoid tumors (2 each) have had no recurrences. The other 5 survivors had duct cell cancers (3 examples), a cholangiocarcinoma (1 example), and a hepatoma (1 example). The experience so far supports further cautious trials with this drastic cancer operation.  (+info)

(5/459) Sonographically guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of abdominal lymph nodes: experience in 102 patients.

We present our experience with sonographically guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of abdominal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes in 102 patients. The biopsied lymph nodes measured 1 to 6 cm (mean, 2.3 cm) and were located at the porta hepatis (n = 23), in the peripancreatic (n = 31), paraaortic (n = 22), aortocaval (n = 1), common iliac (n = 3), or external iliac (n = 6) regions, or in the mesentery (n = 16). Material sufficient for cytologic analysis was obtained in 87 (85.2%) of the 102 patients. The cytologic diagnosis in these patients included malignancy in 47 patients, tuberculosis in 28 patients, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 patients, and aspergillosis in two patients. In the other 15 patients, fine needle aspiration biopsy could not provide a definitive diagnosis. No major or minor complications occurred in our study. Thus, sonographic guidance is an effective alternative to computed tomography for biopsy of abdominal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes.  (+info)

(6/459) Biological effects of vinyl chloride: an experimental study.

Plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, (AP), transaminases and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with isoenzymes were determined in mice inhaling 50 and 550 ppm vinyl chloride (VC). The animals were also autopsied and the tissue pathology was studies. The total LDH activity was elevanted in both dose groups along with a shift to cathodic enzymes. AP was increased in animals exposed to 500 ppm and transaminases were not at all changed. Enzyme changes occurred after the appearance of tumors. Alveologenic adenomas occurred in all animals at the higher dosage and in about half of the animals inhaling the lower dose. Subperitoneal and subcutaneous hemangiosarcomas were frequent in both dose groups; but especially among 50 ppm animals. Only one animal had a hemangiosarcoma of the liver. No liver fibrosis was seen. All primary subperitoneal and subcutaneous tumors were located in fat tissue. Telangiectasis was observed in two animals in the 500 ppm series. The importance of blood vessel changes in the toxicology of vinyl chloride is discussed.  (+info)

(7/459) A pathologic study of abdominal lymphangiomas.

Abdominal lymphangiomas are uncommon angiomatous tumor occurring mainly in childhood. This is a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 17 cases of abdominal lymphangioma. The patients included are five children and 12 adults, with a mean age at initial presentation of 30.7 years (age ranges 3-63). The locations of the tumors were mesentery (5), retroperitoneum (4), colon (3), omentum (3), mesocolon (1) and gallbladder (1). Infiltrative growth was more common pattern than entirely circumscribed pattern. Masses were mostly multilocular cysts and contained chyle or serous fluid. On immunohistochemical staining, 16 cases were reactive for either CD31 or factor VIII-related antigen. These fact would suggest that intra-abdominal lymphangiomas simulate the immunohistochemical features of collecting lymphatics. Follow up was possible in 12 cases for 3-50 months (mean 19 months) and only one patient showed local recurrence. Although abdominal lymphangiomas are rare in adulthood and correct preoperative diagnosis is difficult, awareness of such a possibility in adulthood will contribute to make a correct preoperative diagnosis.  (+info)

(8/459) The potential of gene therapy in the peritoneal cavity.

Gene therapy is a promising new treatment modality based on molecular genetic modification to achieve a therapeutic benefit. We believe that gene therapy in the peritoneal cavity holds considerable promise, and we describe strategies by which genetic modification can be used to treat a variety of disease states or conditions. First, we can envision a strategy, based on genetic modification of the peritoneal membrane, to improve the practice of peritoneal dialysis through the production of proteins that would be of therapeutic value in preventing membrane damage and in preserving or enhancing its function as a dialyzing membrane. Second, the membrane could be genetically modified for either local or systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. This approach could be applied to a variety of pathologies or conditions that require either sustained or transient delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as enzymes or growth factors. Third, gene transfer has already been incorporated into several strategies for the treatment of intra-abdominal carcinomas, and it has been effective in animal models of ovarian and bladder cancer and of peritoneal mesothelioma. Finally, gene transfer can be a valuable tool in increasing our understanding of the biology of the peritoneal membrane. By being able to manipulate the expression of specific genes through gene transfer, their role in various (patho)physiological processes can be identified. In summary, gene therapy in the peritoneal cavity has significant potential to address a variety of diseases or pathophysiological conditions, and to further our knowledge of peritoneal cavity biology.  (+info)