Desmoid tumour. The risk of recurrent or new disease with subsequent pregnancy: a case report. (1/508)

Desmoid tumours are rare, benign tumours arising from fibrous tissue in muscle fascia or aponeurosis. They are most common in women of child-bearing age and most often appear during or after pregnancy in this age group. The recommended treatment is wide surgical excision, if possible, but unresectable tumours may be treated with radiotherapy, anticancer drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or antiestrogenic compounds. The recurrence rate is high and seems to be related to the achievement of resection margins free of tumour. The literature is not specific about how to counsel women who have had a desmoid tumour and subsequently wish to have a child. Patients should be advised that these tumours may be estrogen sensitive but subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily a risk factor for recurrence or development of new disease.  (+info)

Antinociceptive properties of the new alkaloid, cis-8, 10-di-N-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dihydrate isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus: evidence for the mechanism of action. (2/508)

The antinociceptive action of the alkaloid cis-8, 10-di-n-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dehydrate (DPHD), isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus, given i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v., was assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin- and capsaicin-induced licking, and hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DPHD given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. elicited significant and dose-related antinociception. At the ID50 level, DPHD was about 2- to 39-fold more potent than aspirin and dipyrone, but it was about 14- to 119-fold less potent than morphine. Its analgesic action was reversed by treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine, naloxone, cyprodime, naltrindole, nor-binaltrorphimine, L-arginine, or pertussis toxin. Its action was also modulated by adrenal-gland hormones but was not affected by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A or type B antagonist, bicuculine, or phaclofen, nor was it affected by glibenclamide. DPHD, given daily for up to 7 days, did not develop tolerance to itself nor did it induce cross-tolerance to morphine. However, animals rendered tolerant to morphine presented cross-tolerance to DPHD. The antinociception of DPHD was not secondary to its anti-inflammatory effect, nor was it associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. DPHD, in contrast to morphine, did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it inhibit electrical field stimulation of the guinea pig ileum or mouse vas deferens in vitro. Thus, DPHD produces dose-dependent and pronounced systemic, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in mice, including against the neurogenic nociception induced by formalin and capsaicin. Its antinociceptive effect involves multiple mechanisms of action, namely interaction with mu, delta, or kappa opioid systems, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonin pathways, activation of Gi protein sensitive to pertussis toxin, and modulation by endogenous glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Lymphangiosarcomas in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases. (3/508)

Clinical, macroscopic, and histologic features of 12 lymphangiosarcomas in cats are described. Nine tumors were located in the subcutaneous tissue at the caudoventral abdominal wall (eight cats) or in the neck (one cat). The remaining three cats had lymphangiosarcomas around the cranial mesenteric artery (two cats) or precardial in the mediastinum (one cat). Macroscopically, the tumors were noncircumscribed, white, edematous, and intermixed with fat tissue. Histologic features varied from cleft-forming and cavernous growth to papilliform and solid patterns. Follow-up data were available for seven cats with subcutaneous lymphangiosarcomas. All these cats died or were euthanatized within 6 months after surgery because of poor wound healing, local recurrence, or distant metastases. The cats with abdominal or thoracic masses were either euthanatized at surgery or within 6 months after the first surgery because of recurrent chylothorax, chyloperitoneum, or distant metastases.  (+info)

Congenital hernia of the abdominal wall: a differential diagnosis of fetal abdominal wall defects. (4/508)

A 28-year-old woman was referred at 33 weeks of gestation with suspected fetal intestinal atresia. Sonography showed a large extra-abdominal mass on the right of the normal umbilical cord insertion. Following Cesarean section at 36 weeks and immediate surgical treatment, the malformation was not definable either as an omphalocele or as gastroschisis. This reported case involves a previously undocumented malformation of the fetal abdominal wall described as a 'hernia' of the fetal abdominal wall.  (+info)

Posture effects on timing of abdominal muscle activity during stimulated ventilation. (5/508)

In humans during stimulated ventilation, substantial abdominal muscle activity extends into the following inspiration as postexpiratory expiratory activity (PEEA) and commences again during late inspiration as preexpiratory expiratory activity (PREA). We hypothesized that the timing of PEEA and PREA would be changed systematically by posture. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis in nine awake subjects. Airflow, end-tidal CO2, and moving average electromyogram (EMG) signals were recorded during resting and CO2-stimulated ventilation in both supine and standing postures. Phasic expiratory EMG activity (tidal EMG) of the four abdominal muscles at any level of CO2 stimulation was greater while standing. Abdominal muscle activities during inspiration, PEEA, and PREA, were observed with CO2 stimulation, both supine and standing. Change in posture had a significant effect on intrabreath timing of expiratory muscle activation at any level of CO2 stimulation. The transversus abdominis showed a significant increase in PEEA and a significant decrease in PREA while subjects were standing; similar changes were seen in the internal oblique. We conclude that changes in posture are associated with significant changes in phasic expiratory activity of the four abdominal muscles, with systematic changes in the timing of abdominal muscle activity during early and late inspiration.  (+info)

Hydrostatic and osmotic pressures modulate partitioning of tissue water in abdominal muscle during dialysis. (6/508)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure of anterior abdominal muscle (AAM) to changes in intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure (Pip) and to osmolality of peritoneal fluid on total tissue water (TTW) and on the pattern of distribution of TTW in the AAM. DESIGN: A pilot study of single 60-min dwells in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, dialyzed with either isotonic (290 mOsm/kg) or hypertonic (510 mOsm/kg) dialysis solutions at nominal Pip of 0 mmHg or 6 mmHg. MEASUREMENTS: TTW (from dry-weight-to-wet-weight ratios) can be divided into the extracellular volume [theta(ec), from quantitative autoradiography (QAR) with 14C-mannitol] and intracellular volume (theta(ic) = TTW - theta(ec)). Theta(ec) = theta(if) + theta(iv), where theta(if) = interstitial volume and theta(iv) = vascular volume [from QAR with 131I-immunoglobulin G (IgG)]. All measured parameters are standardized to tissue dry weight and expressed as mean +/- standard error. RESULTS: Regardless of the osmolality of the dialysis solution, elevation of Pip to 6 mmHg results in tissue expansion, primarily in theta(if), which is doubled to 1.71+/-0.11 mL/g dry weight and 1.60+/-0.17 mL/g dry weight with isotonic and hypertonic dialysis, respectively, as compared to controls (0.64+/-0.04 mL/g dry weight). The local theta(iv) was not affected by Pip or osmolality of the bathing solution. The overall theta(iv) is 0.046+/-0.006 mL/g dry weight. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to access the effect of osmolality and Pip on theta(ic) demonstrated no significant change in theta(ic) (F = 1.2, p > 0.1) as calculated for controls (3.13+/-0.19 mL/g dry weight), after isotonic dialysis (3.13+/-0.20 mL/g dry weight), or after hypertonic dialysis (2.77+/-0.30 mL/g dry weight). CONCLUSION: Elevation of Pip to 6 mmHg significantly increased TTW and expanded the tissue. Tissue expansion is primarily in interstitium (theta(if)), which is doubled from control value regardless of dialysis fluid osmolality.  (+info)

External oblique abdominal muscle: a new look on its blood supply and innervation. (7/508)

Numerous reports have discussed the use of the external oblique abdominal muscle as a pedicled or a free flap for defect coverage. A detailed description of the supplying vessels and nerves is a prerequisite for successful tissue transfer but so far is not available in the literature. A study of the arteries and nerves supplying the external oblique abdominal muscle was carried out in 42 cadavers after injection of a mixture of latex and bariumsulfate. In seven fresh cadavers the motor branches were identified with the Karnovsky technique. Three different groups of arteries were identified as the nurturing vessels. The cranial part of the muscle is supplied by two branches of the intercostal arteries. While the lateral branches run on the outer surface of the muscle together with the nerves, the anterior branches enter the muscle from its inner surface. The caudal part of the muscle derives its main blood supply from one or two branches of the deep circumflex iliac artery (94.7%) or the iliolumbar artery (5.3%). The external oblique abdominal muscle is innervated by motor branches of the lateral cutaneous branches of the anterior spinal nerves in a segmental pattern. With the exception of the subcostal nerve the motor branches enter the outer surface of the muscle digitation arising from the rib above. The results show that the cranial half of the external oblique abdominal muscle has a strictly segmental blood and nerve supply while the caudal half of the muscle derives its main blood supply from one artery but still shows a segmental innervation.  (+info)

Chest wall kinematics and respiratory muscle action in walking healthy humans. (8/508)

We studied chest wall kinematics and respiratory muscle action in five untrained healthy men walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 2 and 4 miles/h with constant grade (0%). The chest wall volume (Vcw), assessed by using the ELITE system, was modeled as the sum of the volumes of the lung-apposed rib cage (Vrc,p), diaphragm-apposed rib cage (Vrc,a), and abdomen (Vab). Esophageal and gastric pressures were measured simultaneously. Velocity of shortening (V(di)) and power [Wdi = diaphragm pressure (Pdi) x V(di)] of the diaphragm were also calculated. During walking, the progressive increase in end-inspiratory Vcw (P < 0.05) resulted from an increase in end-inspiratory Vrc,p and Vrc,a (P < 0.01). The progressive decrease (P < 0.05) in end-expiratory Vcw was entirely due to the decrease in end-expiratory Vab (P < 0.01). The increase in Vrc,a was proportionally slightly greater than the increase in Vrc,p, consistent with minimal rib cage distortion (2.5 +/- 0.2% at 4 miles/h). The Vcw end-inspiratory increase and end-expiratory decrease were accounted for by inspiratory rib cage (RCM,i) and abdominal (ABM) muscle action, respectively. The pressure developed by RCM,i and ABM and Pdi progressively increased (P < 0.05) from rest to the highest workload. The increase in V(di), more than the increase in the change in Pdi, accounted for the increase in Wdi. In conclusion, we found that, in walking healthy humans, the increase in ventilatory demand was met by the recruitment of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume. ABM action accounted for the expiratory reserve volume recruitment. We have also shown that the diaphragm acts mainly as a flow generator. The rib cage distortion, although measurable, is minimized by the coordinated action of respiratory muscles.  (+info)