Laboratory trials of three anticoagulant rodenticides for use against the Indian field mouse, Mus booduga Gray. (57/71)

The efficacy of three anticoagulant rodenticides for use against the Indian field mouse, Mus booduga, was evaluated in the laboratory. The poisons, namely warfarin, bromadiolone and brodifacoum, were all found to be toxic enough at the concentrations normally used against other commensal and field rodents. With brodifacoum (0.001 25%), bromadiolone (0.005%) and warfarin (0.025%), 83% of the animals died respectively after 1, 1 and 6 days' feeding. It is suggested that brodifacoum and bromadiolone might be more economical than warfarin for use in practical rodent control.  (+info)

Laboratory tests of seven rodenticides for the control of Meriones shawi. (58/71)

The response of Meriones shawi to seven rodenticides was investigated in laboratory feeding tests. The species proved to be much less susceptible to anticoagulants than most other species of rodent pests. Brodifacoum (at 0.005%), although giving complete mortality after only 8 days' continuous feeding, was more toxic than warfarin (0.025%), coumatetralyl (0.0375%), difenacoum (0.005%) and bromadiolone (0.005%). Calciferol (0.1%), though toxic, was significantly unpalatable. Zinc phosphide (5.0%) presented for 2 days in a choice test against unpoisoned food gave 80% mortality and appears to be the most suitable of these compounds for the control of M. shawi in the field.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between phenprocoumon and atenolol or metoprolol. (59/71)

Pharmacological interactions in both directions between phenprocoumon and atenolol and metoprolol were investigated using a crossover trial. Co-administration of phenprocoumon did not significantly affect Cmax, tmax, t1/2,22, AUC for atenolol or metoprolol. Co-administration of metoprolol, but not atenolol, increased mean plasma phenprocoumon concentrations 4 and 6 h after dosing and was caused by a decrease in the apparent volume of distribution. This increase in plasma phenprocoumon was not associated with an increase in prothrombin time or in the total area under the concentration-time curve. Although the transient increase of phenprocoumon plasma levels caused by metoprolol may be of little clinical significance after a single dose of phenprocoumon, a more important alteration in phenprocoumon disposition and effect should be considered in individual patients on long-term therapy.  (+info)

Field trials of brodifacoum (WBA 8119) against the house mouse (Mus musculus L.). (60/71)

The anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum was tested against house mice (Mus musculus L.) infesting farm buildings. In six trials, treatment success was assessed from the results of census baitings conducted before and after treatment. With 0.005% brodifacoum in canary seed/corn oil bait, the control achieved ranged between 92.7% and 100%, mean 98.8%. Two mouse populations were eradicated in 3 to 4 weeks but a few individuals survived each of the other four treatments which lasted 6 weeks. The effectiveness of brodifacoum against mice is compared with that of 0.1% calciferol and 0.025% warfarin in combination. It is concluded that brodifacoum and calciferol warfarin are equally effective in controlling M. musculus but that brodifacoum treatments need to be conducted for a relatively longer period.  (+info)

Comparative effect of the three rodenticides warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum on eight rodent species in short feeding periods. (61/71)

Short laboratory feeding tests were carried out with the anticoagulants warfarin, difenacoum, and brodifacoum on a number of European rodent species: Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, M. arvalis, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. It was found that the toxicity to all species was highest with brodifacoum and lowest with warfarin, and that only 0.005% brodifacoum would give a complete mortality in most species after one day's feeding. The potential of this compound for the control of microtine field rodents is suggested.  (+info)

Cimetidine does not increase the anticoagulant effect of phenprocoumon. (62/71)

In patients on oral warfarin, nicoumalone and phenindione an increase of the anticoagulant effect has been described during concomitant treatment with cimetidine. Therefore we have investigated the effect of cimetidine on the steady state dynamics of phenprocoumon in ten outpatients. No changes in the anticoagulant effect and the plasma phenprocoumon levels were observed during and after 2 weeks application of cimetidine. The data show that cimetidine does not interact with the metabolism of phenprocoumon in contrast to warfarin.  (+info)

Field trials of second-generation anticoagulants against difenacoum-resistant Norway rat populations. (63/71)

Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14--42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35--56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations in 21--73 days and of the ten residual populations left behind by the other two compounds, after baiting for a further 11--85 days. The performance of both bromadiolone and brodifacoum was well below that reported by previous investigators, indicating the possibility of low-grade resistance to these compounds in the difenacoum-resistant strain.  (+info)

The response of the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides. (64/71)

The response of Acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. In contrast to the other commensal rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. It is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of A. cahirinus.  (+info)