Synergistic effect of coumarin (1,2 benzopyrone) and endotoxin in the induction of human interleukin-1.
(25/71)Coumarin as well as its derivatives 7-OH coumarin and 4-OH coumarin were found to stimulate interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) release from freshly isolated human mononuclear cells (MNC) if the culture medium contained fetal calf serum. Under serum-free conditions, almost no induction of IL-1 beta release was observed and the former effect could be completely eliminated by polymyxin B. Therefore, the combined action of endotoxin and coumarin was tested on MNC IL-1 beta production. The coumarins were able to potentiate human MNC IL-1 beta production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent manner. That the effect was due to the presence of coumarins and not endotoxin contamination was shown by negative Limulus amebocyte lysate tests and pre-incubation of the coumarins with polymyxin B-agarose. The latter procedure was able to block endotoxin induced IL-1 beta production but the synergism between coumarin and endotoxin was not influenced by pre-incubating the coumarins with polymyxin B-agarose. Cycloheximide as well as actinomycin D eliminated the induction of IL-1 release by coumarin and LPS demonstrating that the cytokine was newly synthesized after MNC stimulation. In addition, both the total amount of MNC IL-1 beta (cell-associated + extracellular) and the extracellular portion of the cytokine were synergistically decreased if coumarin or its derivatives were added to endotoxin-stimulated cultures. Synergism of coumarin and endotoxin in the induction of interleukin-6 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha could be observed in a smaller percentage of donors. These findings demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of coumarin on cytokine production by monocytes in vitro which might help to explain some of the biological activities attributed to the drug upon its application in tumour patients. (+info)
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning.
(26/71)Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. (+info)
An HPLC method for the determination of bromadiolone plasma kinetics and its residues in hen eggs.
(27/71)Cereal-based bromadiolone anticoagulant is often used for rodent control, and because these baits are attractive for poultry they may be accidentally ingested. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of bromadiolone residues in hens' eggs and its plasma kinetics. Laying hens (n = 48) were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Groups I and II received orally a single dose of bromadiolone 10 mg/kg, group III received a single dose of bromadiolone 60 mg/kg, and group IV was the control. Eggs were collected from groups I, III, and IV, whereas plasma was collected from groups II and IV. The HPLC method developed was reproducible, sensitive, accurate, and linear within the range 0.1-20 mug/g. The final HPLC conditions were as follows: mobile phase MeOH-ammonium acetate (0.5 M) triethylamine buffer (pH 5, 51:49, v/v); analytical column Luna C(1)(8) ODS2; wavelength 260 nm; flow rate of 1.5 mL/min; and warfarin as internal standard (5 mug/mL). Recoveries for bromadiolone were in the range of 72-80% with RSD lower than 10%. Pharmacokinetic behavior of bromadiolone in hens results faster than that reported in other animals and humans. Following 10 and 60 mg/kg treatment bromadiolone was not detected in albumen but was present in yolk from day 4 to 5 and from day 2 to 9. In conclusion, the bromadiolone amount found in eggs was well below the toxic dose of this anticoagulant for humans, and no anticoagulant effect should be observed. (+info)
Korean patients with superwarfarin intoxication and their outcome.
Successful therapy of coumatetralyl rodenticide induced pericardial effusion with pericardiocentesis in a dog.
(29/71)A 5-year-old, intact male, golden retriever was presented with an acute onset of lethargy and respiratory distress. The dog was diagnosed as having rodenticide intoxication with pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis was successfully performed and was followed with a blood transfusion. This case suggests that rodenticide intoxication might cause pericardial effusion in dogs. (+info)
Benzylidene-bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin) and benzopyrano-coumarin derivatives: synthesis, (1)H/(1)(3)C-NMR conformational and X-ray crystal structure studies and in vitro antiviral activity evaluations.
Warfarin-related nephropathy modeled by nephron reduction and excessive anticoagulation.
Notable pink excreta and severe myocardial suppression in superwarfarin (difethialone) intoxication.
(32/71)Patients rarely consult physicians before developing coagulopathy or bleeding in most reported cases of superwarfarin intoxication. A 57-year-old woman ingested red-dyed pellets of anticoagulant rodenticide containing difethialone and warfarin as well as tablets of nitrazepam. Although she presented to the hospital in a comatose state, notable pink-colored excreta hinted at the consumption of anticoagulant rodenticide, which led to the early diagnosis of superwarfarin intoxication. Supplementation of large doses of intravenous and oral vitamin K successfully prevented coagulopathy and bleeding. On the other hand, temporary and reversible myocardial suppression was extremely severe, and required the introduction of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. (+info)