Queen pheromone blocks aversive learning in young worker bees.
Queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) has profound effects on dopamine signaling in the brain of young worker honey bees. As dopamine in insects has been strongly implicated in aversive learning, we examined QMP's impact on associative olfactory learning in bees. We found that QMP blocks aversive learning in young workers, but leaves appetitive learning intact. We postulate that QMP's effects on aversive learning enhance the likelihood that young workers remain in close contact with their queen by preventing them from forming an aversion to their mother's pheromone bouquet. The results provide an interesting twist to a story of success and survival. (+info)
Determination of some L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine metabolites in urine by means of mass fragmentography.
We describe a mass-fragmentographic method for determination in urine of the following metabolites of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine: vanillactic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Deuterated analogs were used as internal standards. The method is fast, reproducible, sensitive, and selective, and does not require the use of time-consuming clean-up procedures. Normal excretion values in terms of creatinine, expressed as a function of age, as well as values obtained for patients with neurogenic tumors, a patient during therapy with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and a patient receiving dopamine are presented and discussed. (+info)
Species differences in the conjugation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol with glucuronic acid and sulphuric acid.
The biosynthesis of the glucuronide and sulphate conjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol was demonstrated in vitro by using the high-speed supernatant and microsomal fractions of liver respectively. These two conjugates were also produced simultaneously by using the post-mitochondrial fraction of rat, rabbit or guinea-pig liver. In contrast only the glucuronide was synthesized by human liver and only the sulphate by mouse and cat livers. Neither of these conjugates was formed by the kidney or the small or large intestine of the rat. A high sulphate-conjugating activity was observed in mouse kidney; the rate of sulphation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol with kidney homogenate and high-speed supernatant preparations was 1.8 times greater than with liver preparations. The sulpho-conjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylglycol were also formed by enzyme preparations of rabbit adrenal and rat brain; the glycol was the better substrate in the latter system. Mouse brain did not possess any sulphotransferase activity. For the conjugation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol by rabbit liver, the Km for UDP-glucuronic acid was 0.22 mM and that for Na2SO4 was 3.45 mM. The sulphotransferase has a greater affinity for 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-ethanol than has glucuronyltransferase, as indicated by their respective Km values of 0.036 and 1.3 mM. It was concluded that sulphate conjugation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol predominates in most species of animals. (+info)