pH, healing rate, and symptom relief in patients with GERD. (49/641)

Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are common and occur in all of us from time to time. In others, reflux may be associated with ulcerative esophagitis. The symptoms may be aggravated by large meals, coffee, smoking and position. Physiological and pathological reflux can be separated by the frequency and duration of the exposure of the lower esophagus to acid. Pathological reflux results in symptoms and also esophagitis and ulceration in some patients. Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered to result from a disorder of motility in the esophagus, gastric acid and peptic activity are deemed pivotal to the initiation and continuation of the esophageal damage and the development of symptoms. Acid exposure in the esophagus is normally less than 4 percent of the 24 hours with a pH below 4. An increase over 4 percent of the time with a pH less than 4 is considered pathological. Hence, antisecretory drugs have become the principle approach to the treatment of reflux symptoms and esophagitis since they reduce the acidity, of gastric juice and the activity of pepsin. Importantly, they also reduce the volume of gastric juice available for reflux into the esophagus. There is a clear relationship between the degree and duration of acid suppression and the relief of heartburn and healing of esophagitis. Pharmacodynamic studies with different dose regimens of the H2-receptor antagonists and the proton pump inhibitors show a difference in the degree and duration of the antisecretory effect, and this correlates closely with the results of clinical trials with respect to the healing of esophagitis and the relief of symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors achieve healing rates by week four, which are not achieved by H2-receptor antagonists even after 12 weeks of treatment. The advantage of proton pump inhibitors over H2-receptor antagonists is due to the greater degree, longer duration of effect and more complete inhibition of acid secretion that maintains intragastric pH above 4 for a maximal duration. Although there is no significant difference between proton pump inhibitors with respect to healing of esophagitis, symptom relief occurs earlier with lansoprazole than omeprazole, and this is probably due to the greater oral bioavailability and faster onset of action of lansoprazole when compared to omeprazole.  (+info)

A placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of 7-day dosing with 10, 20 and 40 mg rabeprazole on 24-h intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin in healthy male subjects. (50/641)

AIM: To compare the effects of rabeprazole 10, 20 and 40 mg o.d. on 24-h intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin concentration in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy male volunteers were studied on the 7th day of morning dosing with either placebo or rabeprazole 10, 20 or 40 mg in a crossover fashion. On day 7, hourly intragastric acidity was measured for 24 h from 08.00 hours by gastric aspiration. Plasma gastrin concentrations were also measured hourly from 08.00 to 24.00 hours, and 2-hourly thereafter. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, rabeprazole 10, 20 and 40 mg produced significant dose-related decreases in intragastric acidity (median 24-h integrated acidity=697, 186, 129 and 82 mmol h/L, respectively). This was associated with significant elevation of plasma gastrin concentration (median 24-h integrated gastrin=141, 1184, 1484 and 1763 pmol.h/L, respectively). Rabeprazole 40 mg resulted in significantly decreased acidity compared with both 10 and 20 mg, and in longer times for which intragastric pH was maintained at > 3 (19. 2 h vs. 17.3 h and 17.5 h) and > 4 (17 h vs. 14.2 h and 15.2 h), but was accompanied by significantly increased plasma gastrin. There was a consistent trend for greater antisecretory activity for 20 mg compared with 10 mg, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The interindividual variability in antisecretory response was greatest with 10 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Rabeprazole 10, 20 and 40 mg produce significant, profound dose-related inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Taking into account reciprocal increases in plasma gastrin and the interindividual variation in antisecretory response, 20 mg appears to be the preferred dose for routine clinical use.  (+info)

Rabeprazole produces rapid, potent, and long-acting inhibition of gastric acid secretion in subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection. (51/641)

AIM: To compare acid inhibiting activity and duration of action of different doses of rabeprazole, a substituted benzimidazole characterized as a highly potent and irreversible H+, K+-ATPase inhibitor, administered for 7 days to subjects infected with Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: A total of 38 subjects (mean age 39.3 years) were enrolled in a single-centre, double-blind, randomized, crossover study. All subjects were confirmed positive for H. pylori by 14C urea breath test and ELISA serologies. Subjects were divided into two groups of 19 to receive two doses of rabeprazole, either 5 and 20 mg or 10 and 40 mg, and placebo, given in random order daily in the morning for 7 days. Peptone-stimulated acid, pH, and gastrin measurements were made for 24 h after the 1st dose and for 48 h after the 7th dose. RESULTS: Peptone-stimulated acid secretion rates were decreased from 12.5 to 6.7, 4.0, 1.5, and 0.26 h after initial 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg doses, respectively; to 7.3, 4.3, 2.1, and 1.2 mmol/h 23 h after the initial dose; and to 2.4, 2.6, 0.6, and 0.8 mmol/h 23 h after the 7th dose. After 48 h, stimulated acid secretion had recovered less than 40% for all treatment groups compared to placebo. Median intragastric pH also increased from 2.0 with placebo to 4.9, 6.2, 6.6 and 6.9 during the 24-h period after the 7th dose of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg. The 20 mg dose of rabeprazole produced equivalent acid inhibition to the 40 mg dose with less increase in plasma gastrin. CONCLUSION: Rabeprazole in doses from 5 to 40 mg was a highly effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in subjects infected with H. pylori. The inhibition was rapid, dose-related, and long-acting, with less than 50% recovery of acid by 48 h after the 7th dose. The optimal acid inhibitory dose in these subjects appeared to be 20 mg daily, however 5 mg and 10 mg doses produced potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion.  (+info)

Gastric acidity and acid breakthrough with twice-daily omeprazole or lansoprazole. (52/641)

BACKGROUND: In patients with severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), proton pump inhibitors are being used increasingly in twice-daily regimens to improve control of gastric acidity. Few data exist to compare the ability of the most-often used proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole and lansoprazole, to control gastric acid at twice-daily dosage regimens. Nocturnal acid breakthrough, defined as gastric pH < 4.0 continuously for > 60 min, may compromise treatment goals in patients with GERD. AIM: To compare the effects of omeprazole 20 mg b.d. or lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. on gastric acidity and the relative ability of each dosage regimen to prevent acid breakthrough. METHODS: In a crossover pharmacodynamic study, 20 healthy volunteers (10 male, 10 female, mean age 38 years) were given omeprazole 20 mg b.d. or lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. for 7 days each, in a randomized manner. Each dosage regimen was separated by a minimum 7-day period where no medication was administered. On day 7 of each regimen, 24-h intragastric pH-metry was performed. The percentage of time for which gastric pH was below 4.0 and 3.0, the occurrence of daytime and nocturnal acid breakthrough, and the duration of action of each regimen were compared. Non-parametric statistics for paired data were used. RESULTS: The percentage time for which gastric pH was below 4.0 was significantly lower with omeprazole 20 mg b.d. (median 14.8%) than with lansoprazole 30 mg b. d. (median 24.2; P=0.0372). Fourteen subjects showed more effective acid control when taking omeprazole; these were significantly more often H. pylori-negative patients compared with those for whom acid control was better on lansoprazole (P < 0.001). Nocturnal acid breakthrough occurred in seven patients (35%) on omeprazole and in 10 (50%) on lansoprazole (N.S.). CONCLUSION: In healthy volunteers, twice-daily dosing of omeprazole 20 mg b.d. appears to be significantly more effective than lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. in controlling gastric acidity. The clinical importance of such a difference remains to be defined in GERD patients.  (+info)

Influence of age on the steady state disposition of drugs commonly used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. (53/641)

BACKGROUND: The success of eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori might be affected by the age of patients. AIM: To investigate whether disposition of drugs commonly used for H. pylori eradication is age-dependent. METHODS: Trough steady state serum levels of lansoprazole or ranitidine, amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were monitored in 232 patients during the last dosing interval of a 5-day quadruple H. pylori eradication regimen. Detailed pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 28 patients. RESULTS: Linear correlations between age and trough serum levels were observed with lansoprazole (r=0.25; P=0.002), ranitidine (r=0. 38; P=0.001) and clarithromycin (r=0.36; P < 0.0001). These associations were also inversely dependent of creatinine clearance for ranitidine (r=0.36; P=0.001) and clarithromycin (r=0.30; P < 0. 0001). Multiple linear regression revealed age as an important factor influencing trough serum levels of lansoprazole, clarithromycin and ranitidine. There were significant inverse relationships between creatinine clearance and area under curve of ranitidine (r=0.88; P < 0.0001) and amoxycillin (r=0.56; P=0.002). Multiple linear regression revealed serum creatinine as the most important factor influencing the area under curve of ranitidine, clarithromycin and amoxycillin. CONCLUSIONS: Age per se has little influence on pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and ranitidine, which depend more on age-dependent decline in renal function. The influence of age, but not renal function was established for lansoprazole. Age and renal function have independent impacts on clarithromycin disposition.  (+info)

Studies of the effect of Clostridium butyricum on Helicobacter pylori in several test models including gnotobiotic mice. (54/641)

The interaction between Clostridium butyricum and Helicobacter pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. The culture supernate of C. butyricum MIYAIRI 588 inhibited the growth of H. pylori even when its pH was adjusted to 7.4. The bactericidal effect of butyric acid on H. pylori was stronger than that of lactic, acetic or hydrochloric acids. Flow cytometric analysis showed that pre-incubation of gastric epithelial (MKN45) cells with H. pylori and C. butyricum inhibited the adhesion of H. pylori to the cells. Persistent infection with H. pylori in the gastric mucosa of germ-free mice was observed for 5 weeks. Cure of persistent infection with H. pylori in the gnotobiotic mice was demonstrated following infection with C. butyricum. The probiotic agent, C. butyricum MIYAIRI 588 may have some beneficial effects on H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Oral pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and lansoprazole after single and repeated doses as intact capsules or as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate. (55/641)

BACKGROUND: Omeprazole and lansoprazole can be given in sodium bicarbonate as, respectively, simplified omeprazole suspension and simplified lansoprazole suspension. We previously found the antisecretory effect of omeprazole 20 mg given as simplified omeprazole suspension to be lower than with intact capsules. However, lansoprazole 30 mg as simplified lansoprazole suspension produced an effect similar to that seen with intact capsules. AIM: To evaluate the absorption of both drugs when given orally as capsules or as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: In random order, we gave 5-day courses of omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg as capsules and as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate to 12 healthy women. Serial blood samples were taken on days 1 and 5 of each course for pharmacokinetic measurements. RESULTS: There was impairment of omeprazole absorption when given as simplified omeprazole suspension. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration/time curve were lower with simplified omeprazole suspension than with omeprazole capsules (P=0.034 and 0.013, respectively, on day 5). No differences were found in lansoprazole absorption when simplified lansoprazole suspension was compared with its standard capsule formulation. Relative bioavailability of omeprazole from simplified omeprazole suspension compared to the capsule was 58.4% on day 5. The corresponding value for lansoprazole was 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified omeprazole suspension 20 mg does not supply adequate omeprazole for systemic absorption. Lansoprazole absorption from simplified lansoprazole suspension is maintained.  (+info)

Efficacy of sucralfate for Helicobacter pylori eradication triple therapy in comparison with a lansoprazole-based regimen. (56/641)

BACKGROUND: Sucralfate has an inhibitory action against Helicobacter pylori and enhances the anti-H. pylori activity of antimicrobials. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sucralfate-based eradication therapy for H. pylori infection, compared with that based on lansoprazole, in a randomized multicentre study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects were 150 H. pylori-positive patients. They were randomly assigned to one of two regimens for 2 weeks: sucralfate 1 g t.d.s., amoxycillin 500 mg t.d.s., and clarithromycin 400 mg b.d. (SAC regimen: 75 patients); or lansoprazole 30 mg o.m. with the same antimicrobial medications (LAC regimen: 75 patients). Cure of infection was assessed by a 13C urea breath test 1 month after completion of treatment. RESULTS: Eight patients (four in the SAC group and four in LAC group) could not continue therapy because of severe diarrhoea, and three did not take the 13C urea breath test after therapy. Cure rates for intention-to-treat, all-patients-treated, and per protocol analysis in the SAC group were 80%, 83%, and 88%, respectively, and those in the LAC group were 87%, 87%, and 92%, respectively. There were no significant differences in cure rate or adverse effects between the two regimens. CONCLUSION: Sucralfate in combination with amoxycillin and clarithromycin is as effective as lansoprazole-based eradication therapy for H. pylori.  (+info)