Helicobacter treatment with quadruple therapy in primary health care for patients with a history of ulcer disease. (25/641)

BACKGROUND: Few patients with a history of peptic ulcer are treated by their GP for H. pylori infection, even though theoretical evidence supports such an approach. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the validity of this recommendation and to test the feasibility of quadruple therapy in primary health care. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized intervention study, 51 unselected patients with a history of proven ulcer disease received a 7-day quadruple therapy (lansoprazole, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, tetracycline and metronidazole) from their GP. Main outcome measures were: (i) endoscopically confirmed cure of the infection; (ii) results of serology at entry and at 6 months follow-up; (iii) quality of life at entry, at 6 weeks and at 6 months follow-up; (iv) gastric symptoms at entry, at 6 weeks and at 6 months follow-up; and (v) medication at entry and at 6 months follow-up. RESULTS: Quadruple therapy was well tolerated and there were no drop-outs with this regimen. Intention to treat cure rate was 48/51 (94%, 95% CI 87-100%), per protocol cure rate was 48/49 (98%, 95% CI 94-100%). 45/50 (90%) had positive serology at entry. IgG antibody titres decreased > 40% in 95.2% of patients. Quality of life improved significantly after treatment, gastric symptoms decreased and medication use decreased. CONCLUSIONS: GPs should be encouraged to identify patients with a history of ulcer disease and chronic use of acid suppressants and offer them treatment for H. pylori infection. This approach will cure the infection in almost all patients, it will improve the quality of life and decrease costs. Quadruple therapy does not lose efficacy when employed in primary care. Pre-treatment serological testing is potentially useful for narrowing down the treatment group to those with actual infection, and serology is promising as an easy and cheap follow-up instrument in primary health care.  (+info)

Evaluation of lansoprazole (an H+/K+-ATPase inhibitor) and azithromycin (an antibiotic) for control of gastric ulceration in swine during periods of feed deprivation. (26/641)

Helicobacter-like organisms as well as fermentative bacteria have been implicated in gastric ulcer production in swine. Irregular feeding schedules are also considered a major risk factor. A research trial was conducted to determine whether medication with an acid secretion inhibitor (lansoprazole), either alone or in combination with an antibiotic (azithromycin), would protect pigs from gastric ulceration if the animals were subjected to a 48 h period of fasting. In a 2 x 3 factorial design, 48 pigs were fasted, while an equal number were fed ad libitum. Within these 2 study groups, pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control, 30 mg lansoprazole s.i.d. for 7 d, or lansoprazole (30 mg s.i.d. for 7 d) and azithromycin (500 mg s.i.d. for 3 d). Overall, fasted pigs were 1.9 times more likely to develop erosive or ulcerative lesions of the pars esophagea (chi2 = 9.89, P < 0.002). Treatment with an acid secretion inhibitor alone or in combination with an antibiotic did not protect pigs from developing gastric lesions. Helicobacter-like organisms were not detected in any of the stomachs. Possibly, the lansoprazole dose of 30 mg given once per day was insufficient to prevent pH levels from becoming low enough to cause damage to epithelial tissue. Alternatively other substances such as bile acids may have caused the ulcerative lesions, even though stomach acid production was suppressed.  (+info)

Assessment of patient satisfaction with a formulary switch from omeprazole to lansoprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease maintenance therapy. (27/641)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if patients perceived a difference in the efficacy, side effects, and value of omeprazole versus lansoprazole for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) maintenance therapy after a formulary conversion, and to evaluate the costs of the conversion. STUDY DESIGN: An unblinded questionnaire was mailed to patients who were currently receiving GERD maintenance therapy with lansoprazole from the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred patients who had been on omeprazole for a minimum of 2 months prior to the formulary conversion and on lansoprazole for a minimum of 2 months after the formulary conversion were surveyed. Patients were asked to rate the severity and frequency of their symptoms (pain, heartburn, and regurgitation) on a scale from 0 to 9 for each medication. Questions regarding side effects, medication preference, and satisfaction with the formulary conversion process were also addressed. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of the surveys were returned. There was no statistically significant difference between median total symptom scores for omeprazole and lansoprazole (1.33 vs. 1.34, respectively). More patients reported side effects to lansoprazole (P < 0.001) than to omeprazole. Sixty-four percent of patients preferred omeprazole (P < 0.005). The formulary conversion was estimated to save $29,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: Omeprazole was the medication preferred by patients for GERD maintenance therapy. Patients were willing to pay an additional fee for their preferred agent. Fewer adverse events were reported with omeprazole. The potential cost savings of the formulary conversion may have been at the expense of patient satisfaction.  (+info)

Review article: current perspectives on hypergastrinaemia and enterochromaffin-like-cell hyperplasia. (28/641)

Rabeprazole, a new benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI), is among a class of agents known to be very potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion. PPIs inhibit hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity on the luminal surface of the parietal cell, effectively blocking the final common pathway for gastric acid secretion. Raising gastric pH stimulates the production of gastrin by G cells in the antrum of the stomach, which can lead to enterochromaffin-like (ECL)-cell hyperplasia. In the past, these changes have been viewed with concern, particularly in the light of studies in rats indicating that hypergastrinaemia and ECL-cell hyperplasia induce gastric carcinoid tumour formation. All available clinical data indicate that long-term PPI use does not lead to carcinoid tumour formation in humans. In fact, both serum gastrin elevation and ECL-cell hyperplasia are now generally viewed as normal physiological responses to gastric acid suppression. Serum gastrin concentrations, in particular, correlate well with gastric acid suppression, which has led to the use of gastrin response by some investigators as a surrogate marker of antisecretory effectiveness. Long-term tolerability data indicate that PPIs have a favourable side-effect profile. Data obtained from patients receiving acute or long-term maintenance rabeprazole therapy support this conclusion. Furthermore, neither animal nor human data obtained with rabeprazole suggest a significant risk for neoplastic changes secondary to hypergastrinaemia.  (+info)

Review article: pharmacokinetic concerns in the selection of anti-ulcer therapy. (29/641)

Rabeprazole is a new, highly potent proton pump inhibitor (PPI) being introduced for the treatment of disorders of gastric acid hypersecretion. Rabeprazole joins other drugs in this class, such as omeprazole, pantoprazole, and lansoprazole, which share a common mechanism of action. Each of these drugs is a substituted benzimidazole, which inhibits activity of the H+, K+ -ATPase located on the apical surface of parietal cells, thereby preventing the secretion of gastric acid. As a result of structural and functional similarities, the PPIs share many pharmacokinetic features. They have comparable rates of absorption, maximum plasma concentrations, and total drug absorptions resulting in similar bioavailability after single-dose administration. With multiple dosing, rabeprazole differs from omeprazole in that its pharmacokinetic profile does not change significantly over the course of therapy. All the PPIs are metabolized rapidly, resulting in short half-lives. However, their duration of activity is much longer, due to the way in which they bind to H+, K+ -ATPase. All are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, although only omeprazole has demonstrated significant interactions with other drugs metabolized by this pathway. Rabeprazole, which has a low potential for interacting with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450, does interfere with the absorption of digoxin and ketoconazole because of its antisecretory effects. The pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole are altered slightly in elderly subjects and in patients with renal and moderate hepatic disease. However, the pharmacokinetic findings suggest that no dosage adjustment is required in these special populations.  (+info)

Review article: rabeprazole's tolerability profile in clinical trials. (30/641)

Rabeprazole is a new member of a class of substituted benzimidazole drugs known as proton pump inhibitors. Comparative trials have demonstrated that it is at least as effective as omeprazole for the treatment of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD), duodenal ulcers, or gastric ulcers. It is significantly more effective than histamine2-receptor antagonists for acid suppression, GERD healing and pain relief, and duodenal ulcer healing and pain relief. Adverse events reported during clinical trials provide an important indication of a medication's tolerability. We demonstrate that rabeprazole has a favourable adverse events profile. It is well tolerated in placebo-controlled studies and comparative trials with omeprazole and H2-receptor antagonists. Moreover, no dose adjustments are required for special populations, such as the elderly or patients with renal or mild-to-moderate hepatic disease. Adverse events data from clinical trials support the use of rabeprazole as a treatment for acid-related diseases.  (+info)

Review article: rabeprazole's profile in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. (31/641)

The selection of agents to treat patients with acid-related gastrointestinal diseases requires knowledge of their efficacy, tolerability, and ease of dosing among individuals with differing disease severities and other baseline characteristics. The efficacy and favourable benefit-risk profile of rabeprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), duodenal ulcers, and gastric ulcers. In comparative trials, rabeprazole is at least as effective as omeprazole for the treatment of GERD, duodenal ulcers, and gastric ulcers, and it is superior to histamine2-receptor antagonists for the treatment of GERD and duodenal ulcers. Its once-daily dosing regimen and low potential for interaction with drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system make it a particularly attractive option for the treatment of acid-related diseases among older individuals. Rabeprazole is likely to be a valuable new addition to its class in treating patients with acid-related gastrointestinal diseases given its efficacy in acid suppression, high healing rates, rapid symptom relief, and convenient dosing.  (+info)

Maintenance therapy with pantoprazole 20 mg prevents relapse of reflux oesophagitis. (32/641)

BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors can be effective as maintenance therapy in reducing the relapse rate of reflux oesophagitis at a dose lower than that used for acute healing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n=396, 18-88 years old) with healed reflux oesophagitis (grade II or III before healing) were included in this multinational, prospective, parallel-group, randomized double-blind study. They took oral pantoprazole 20 mg (n=203) or 40 mg (n=193), once daily for up to 12 months. Scheduled endoscopies were performed at entry, after 6 and 12 months, or when symptoms of at least moderate intensity were perceived on 3 consecutive days; symptoms were assessed every 3 months. The primary efficacy parameter was the time until endoscopically proven relapse of reflux oesophagitis occurred; the secondary parameters included tolerability, safety and time until symptomatic relapse occurred. RESULTS: Analysis was performed using the 'all-patients-treated' approach. Endoscopic relapse rates in the 20 mg group after 6 and 12 months were 16 and 29%, respectively; in the 40 mg group, they were 7 and 19%, respectively. Symptomatic relapse rates after 6 and 12 months were 14 and 21% in the 20 mg group and 10 and 17% in the 40 mg group, respectively. Pantoprazole 20 mg and 40 mg were well tolerated throughout the study; the type and frequency of adverse events reported were similar for both treatment groups. CONCLUSION: The 20 mg dose was proven to be 'at least equivalent' to the 40 mg dose with respect to endoscopic and symptomatic relapse. The 20 mg once daily dose represents an effective and safe maintenance regimen for the majority of patients with healed reflux oesophagitis.  (+info)