Safety and efficacy of pantoprazole 40 mg daily as relapse prophylaxis in patients with healed reflux oesophagitis-a 2-year follow-up. (17/641)

BACKGROUND: Pantoprazole is a benzimidazole derivative which selectively inhibits the proton pump H+, K+-ATPase, necessary for the final step in gastric acid secretion. AIM: To assess safety and efficacy of oral pantoprazole (40 mg o.d.) used as a prophylaxis against relapse in patients with healed reflux oesophagitis during an open-label, 2-year study. METHODS: Outpatients (n=157) with healed stage II or III reflux oesophagitis (Savary-Miller classification) were enrolled into a long-term, multicentre maintenance study. Endoscopy was performed at entry into the study, after 12 and 24 months, or when disease-specific symptoms occurred on more than three consecutive days. Symptoms were assessed at 3-monthly intervals. Endoscopically confirmed relapses (at least stage I) were evaluated as treatment failures. RESULTS: Of the 178 adverse events, experienced by 88 (56%) patients (intention-to-treat population), 12 (7%) were assessed by the investigators as possibly related to the study medication. Median serum gastrin levels increased from a baseline of 46 ng/L to 90 ng/L, reaching a plateau after 9 months. For the intention-to-treat population the endoscopic remission rates after 12 and 24 months were 87% and 76%, respectively (Life-Table survival analysis, Kaplan-Meier). CONCLUSION: Pantoprazole 40 mg proved to be safe and efficacious during a 2-year prophylaxis treatment in patients with healed reflux oesophagitis.  (+info)

The effects of oral rabeprazole on endocrine and gastric secretory function in healthy volunteers. (18/641)

AIM: To evaluate the short-term effects of rabeprazole 20 mg on endocrine parameters, in particular serum testosterone and cortisol, and on 24 h intragastric pH, H+ activity and nocturnal gastric acid secretion. METHODS: In this double-blind, two-period crossover study, 12 healthy young male volunteers were randomly given oral rabeprazole 20 mg o.m. or placebo for 14 days. There was a washout period of at least 1 week between the two studies. The effects of rabeprazole and placebo on cortisol and testosterone (primary criteria), and on tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, 17beta-oestradiol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine-binding protein, parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon, rennin, aldosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteotrophic hormone, prolactin, somatotrophic hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol-binding globulin and urinary 6-beta hydroxycortisol were compared. Intragastric 24 h pH, 24 h H+ activity and nocturnal gastric acid secretion were determined by pH probe and gastric aspiration. RESULTS: Rabeprazole produced no clinically relevant effects on endocrine function as assessed by measurement of serum testosterone, circadian serum cortisol levels, ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol levels and 17 other endocrine function tests. Rabeprazole significantly increased the 24 h median pH values compared to placebo (on Days 7 and 14 median values ranged from 3.92 to 6.88 with rabeprazole and from 1.48 and 4.22 with placebo, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the integrated 24 h H+ activity (AUC08--08) from 343 mmol/L/h with placebo to 44 mmol/L/h with rabeprazole (P < 0.001). Following cessation of dosing, intragastric pH levels decreased and H+ activity increased, but acid secretion did not recover completely during the next 72 h. The mean value for nocturnal gastric acid secretion on Days 7 and 8 was 36 mmol/6 h with placebo and 5.6 mmol/6 h with rabeprazole (P < 0.001). Rabeprazole was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Rabeprazole did not influence endocrine function in healthy young male volunteers during short-term dosing. Rabeprazole substantially increased intragastric pH over a 24 h period and significantly decreased intragastric acidity and nocturnal gastric acid secretion.  (+info)

Lansoprazole pharmacokinetics differ in patients with oesophagitis compared to healthy volunteers. (19/641)

AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in patients with reflux oesophagitis and in healthy volunteers, after a single dose and at steady-state. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 30 mg dose of lansoprazole was administered orally daily for 7 days in eight healthy male volunteers aged 21-24 years, and in 16 patients aged 29-65 years with grade 2 or 3 reflux oesophagitis. The pharmacokinetics were assessed over the 24 h dose interval following the first dose and again after the 7th dose. RESULTS: Within both the patient and volunteers groups, there were no significant differences between day 1 and day 7 in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and terminal half-life of elimination (t(1/2)). However, on both days 1 and 7, values were significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. On day 7, Cmax was 1343 ng/mL in patients compared with 765 ng/mL in healthy volunteers, AUC was 3458 ng.h/mL vs. 1350 ng.h/mL and t(1/2) was 1.62 h vs. 0.90 h. CONCLUSION: The differences in results for the pharmacokinetics reflect reduced lansoprazole clearance in the patient group. Other research has not found a difference in pharmacokinetics when comparing healthy volunteers with patients with acid-related disorders. The difference in lansoprazole clearance in this study may be related to a variety of factors that are different in patients compared with young normal volunteers, such as age, gender, other drugs, and reduced general well-being.  (+info)

Review article: the pharmacology of rabeprazole. (20/641)

Rabeprazole sodium is a new substituted benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor with several differences compared with existing proton pump inhibitors. In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that rabeprazole is a more potent inhibitor of H+,K(+)-ATPase and acid secretion than omeprazole, and is a more rapid inhibitor of proton pumps than omeprazole, lansoprazole, or pantoprazole. This probably reflects rabeprazole's faster activation in the parietal cell canaliculus. In human studies, once-daily doses of 5-40 mg of rabeprazole inhibit gastric acid secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. A once-daily dose of 20 mg has consistently achieved profound decreases in 24-h intragastric acidity in single and repeat dosing studies, in healthy volunteers and patients with either peptic ulcer disease or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Significantly greater decreases in intragastric acidity are achieved on day 1 of dosing with rabeprazole 20 mg than with omeprazole 20 mg. As with other proton pump inhibitors, rabeprazole has in vitro antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori, with greater activity against this organism than either lansoprazole or omeprazole. In addition to inhibiting bacterial urease activity, rabeprazole binds to several molecules on H. pylori. Clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical importance of these findings, as well as to assess whether the potential advantages of rabeprazole result in clinical benefit for patients with acid-related diseases.  (+info)

Review article: the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole in health and disease. (21/641)

Rabeprazole, a newly developed proton pump inhibitor, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is a rapid and potent inhibitor of gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase, the gastric acid (proton) pump. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) are linearly related to dose, while the time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax) and elimination half-life (t1/2) are dose-independent. Rabeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver via the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine. Rabeprazole does not accumulate with repeated dosing. Its bioavailability is not influenced by the coingestion of either food or antacids. The pharmacokinetic profile of rabeprazole is substantially altered in the elderly and patients with stable compensated chronic cirrhosis; however, these alterations are not associated with clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory parameters or serious adverse events. The influence of severe decompensated liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole has not been assessed. The pharmacokinetic profile of rabeprazole is not significantly altered by renal dysfunction requiring maintenance haemodialysis. These findings suggest that dosage adjustment is not required in these special patient populations. Caution should be exercised, however, in patients with severe liver disease.  (+info)

Review article: drug interactions with agents used to treat acid-related diseases. (22/641)

Patients with acid-related diseases often need to take multiple medications. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection often includes either a histamine type 2 (H2)-receptor antagonist or a proton pump (H+,K(+)-ATPase) inhibitor (proton pump inhibitor), administered in conjunction with one or more antimicrobials. Also, treatment for acid-related diseases often requires extended therapy during which many concomitant medications may be administered for concurrent disease states. Polypharmacy may be the result, particularly in elderly patients, who are at increased risk for both acid-related and many other diseases. Thus, it is important to understand the potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions in this setting. H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors can influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of other commonly administered medications by elevating intragastric pH, which can alter drug absorption, and by interacting with the cytochrome P (CYP) 450 enzyme system, which can affect drug metabolism and clearance. Such interactions are particularly important when they affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges (e.g. warfarin, digoxin). In these cases, drug-drug interactions can result in significant toxicity and even death. There are marked differences among H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors in their potential for such interactions. The oldest drugs in each class, cimetidine and omeprazole, respectively, have the greatest potential to alter CYP activity and change the pharmacokinetics of other drugs. The most recently developed H2-receptor antagonist, famotidine, and the newer proton pump inhibitors, rabeprazole and pantoprazole, are much less likely to induce or inhibit CYP and thereby change the metabolism of other medications. These differences are important when choosing medications for the safe treatment of patients with acid-related diseases.  (+info)

Review article: cytochrome P450 and the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors--emphasis on rabeprazole. (23/641)

The proton pump inhibitors rabeprazole, omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole undergo an extensive hepatic biotransformation. In the liver, they are metabolized to varying degree by several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes which are further categorized into subfamilies of related polymorphic gene products. The principal isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors are CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Of these two, minor mutations in CYP2C19 affect its activity in the liver and, in turn, the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profiles of the proton pump inhibitors. The metabolism of rabeprazole is less dependent on CYP2C19 and therefore is the least affected by this genetic polymorphism. Recent studies have brought to light the important role that this polymorphism plays in the therapeutic effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors during the treatment of acid-related diseases.  (+info)

Lack of drug interaction between omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and theophylline. (24/641)

AIMS: Theophylline is a model substrate of cytochrome P4501A2. The ability of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole to induce cytochrome P4501A2 has not yet been unequivocally resolved. The aim of this comprehensive study was to compare directly the effect of the three PPI on the absorption and disposition of theophylline. METHODS: Twenty healthy, nonsmoking, male and female volunteers (extensive metabolisers of cytochrome P4502C19 and Helicobacter pylori negative) participated in a randomized, double-blind, four-period, placebo-controlled crossover study. In each of the four periods they received either omeprazole (40 mg), lansoprazole (60 mg), pantoprazole (80 mg) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Sustained release theophylline (350 mg twice daily) was coadministered from day 8-10. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline as well as of all three PPI were determined at steady-state (day 10). RESULTS: In all periods, point estimates and 90% confidence intervals of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC), maximum steady-state concentrations and peak-trough fluctuations of theophylline were not altered by PPI pretreatment and met the required limits for bioequivalence. Point estimates (90% confidence intervals) of the AUC ratios of theophylline plus PPI to theophylline alone were 0.92 (0.87-0.97), 0.90 (0.85-0.95) and 1.00 (0.95-1.06) for omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant intake of omeprazole, lansoprazole or pantoprazole at high therapeutic doses does not affect the absorption and disposition of theophylline.  (+info)