Structural properties of human glycodelin A in water and in water-alcohol mixtures: a comparison with bovine beta-lactoglobulin A.
Human glycodelin A (GdA) is a glycoprotein that is highly homologous to bovine beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-LgA) because the amino acid sequences are 50-60% identical. The structural characteristics of human GdA and beta-LgA were compared in water and 2-propanol/water solutions. Circular dichroism spectra reveal that in water the two proteins have a very similar beta-sheet secondary structure. In the presence of 2-propanol/water mixtures (up to 50% v/v) the alpha-helix structure of both proteins increases. A further increase in the alcohol percentage of the solvent (up to 80% v/v 2-propanol) causes the formation of a new folded tertiary structure containing mainly beta-sheet features. Synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering indicates that, in a neutral pH aqueous solution, GdA is a dimer. Its radius of gyration value (Rg), 25.1+/-0.4 A, is greater than that of beta-LgA (21.1+/-0.3 A), probably because of the contribution of polysaccharides bound to Asn-28 and Asn-63 residues of GdA. Conversely, small angle X-ray scattering and gel permeation chromatography data on GdA in 2-propanol have revealed a massive aggregation of the protein. (+info)
A prospective controlled trial of the efficacy of isopropyl alcohol wipes before venesection in surgical patients.
It has previously been suggested that skin preparation before venesection with antiseptic agents is unnecessary. However thousands of doctors and medical students continue to use isopropyl alcohol (IPA) swabs for venesection, at an estimated cost of 10,000 P per annum in a 500 bed hospital. An audit of IPA swab use among junior doctors and medical students at our institution was undertaken; 76% of doctors and 100% of medical students routinely prepared the skin with alcohol before venesection and only one used the swabs correctly. A randomised single-blind controlled trial was conducted of IPA versus no IPA skin preparation before venesection. There were 194 patients in the study, 93 in the IPA group and 101 controls. There was no statistical difference with respect to complications at the venepuncture site between the two groups. (+info)
Molecular dynamics of microbial lipases as determined from their intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence.
We have studied the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL), Pseudomonas species (PSL), and Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) in aqueous buffer, zwitterionic detergent micelles, and isopropanol-water mixtures. It was the purpose of this study to obtain information about biophysical properties of the respective enzymes under conditions that modulate enzyme activities and stereoselectivities to a significant extent. According to their decay-associated emission spectra, CVL tryptophans are located in the hydrophobic interior of the protein. In contrast, the PSL and ROL tryptophans are probably confined to the core and the surface of the lipase. From the tryptophan lifetime distributions it can be concluded that the conformation of CVL is not much affected by detergent or organic solvent (isopropanol). Accordingly, CVL is enzymatically active in these systems and most active in the presence of isopropanol. In contrast, ROL and PSL show high conformational mobility, depending on the solvent, because their lifetime distributions are very different in the presence and absence of detergent or isopropanol. Time-resolved anisotropy studies provided evidence that the lipases exhibit very high internal molecular flexibility. This peculiar feature of lipases is perhaps the key to the great differences in activity and stereoselectivity observed in different reaction media. Furthermore, information about self-association of the lipases in different solvents could be obtained. PSL, but not CVL and ROL, forms aggregates in water. Lipase aggregation can be reversed by the addition of detergent or isopropanol, which competes for the hydrophobic surface domains of this protein. This dissociation could efficiently contribute to the increase in lipase activity in the presence of a detergent or isopropanol. (+info)
Development and testing of a microbiological assay to detect residual effects of disinfectant on hard surfaces.
We describe a glucuronidase bioassay for detecting residual bactericidal activity from the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces; in this assay we used formaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, chlorine, and a commercial preparation containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1, 3-propanediol. Chlorine and the commercial preparation showed bactericidal activity (53.5% and 98.2%, respectively) for a week after disinfection. (+info)
Blockage of skin invasion by schistosome cercariae by serine protease inhibitors.
Invasion of skin by schistosome cercariae is facilitated by a serine protease secreted from the acetabular cells of cercariae in response to skin lipid. Specific inhibitors of the protease, when applied to human skin in formulations designed to retain the inhibitor on and in the upper stratum corneum layers, block cercarial invasion of human skin. Both peptide-based, irreversible inhibitors and non-peptide, reversible inhibitors block cercarial invasion when applied in a propylene glycol:isopropyl alcohol (3:1) formulation in vitro. Arrest of cercarial invasion could be achieved even after immersion of treated skin in water for 2 hr. Peptide-based irreversible inhibitors in the presence of three different Topicare Delivery Compounds optimized arrest of cercarial invasion. The three Topicare Delivery Compounds applied alone prevented 80-100% of cercarial invasion. With inclusion of the inhibitor, there was 97-100% inhibition in vitro. The optimal formulation with inhibitor was then applied to the tails of BALB/c mice, and the mice were exposed to 120 cercariae by tail immersion. With the carrier lotion alone, there was a 50% reduction in worm burden and a 70% reduction in egg burden. When inhibitor was included, an 80% reduction in worm burden and a 92% reduction in egg burden was observed. (+info)
Elimination half-life of acetone in humans: case reports and review of the literature.
Two instances of finding abnormally high concentrations of acetone in urine (0.10 g/dL and 0.052 g/dL) without any measurable amounts of ethanol (<0.005 g/dL) or isopropanol (<0.005 g/dL) prompted a survey of the elimination kinetics of isopropanol and its metabolite acetone in humans. In a hospital patient who had ingested denatured alcohol, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of acetone during detoxification was 27 h and not 3-5 h as reported by other workers. Several other literature reports of individuals who had ingested isopropanol as well as controlled studies after administration of moderate amounts of acetone and/or isopropanol support the notion of a long elimination half-life of 17-27 h for acetone compared with a t(1/2) of 1-3 h for isopropanol. (+info)
Exposure to organic solvents in the offset printing industry in Norway.
The purpose of this study was to document the conditions regarding solvent exposure at offset printing offices in Norway at present and to study the variation of exposure between printing office technologies. Measurements were made at seven offset printing offices. The measurements consisted of five to 10 whole day personal exposure measurements at each office performed over a period of 2 months. Variables that may influence the level of exposure were registered by the occupational hygienist at the end of each measuring day using a check list. The influence of the variables on the "additive factor" was examined by linear regression analysis.The main contributor to the "additive factor" was isopropanol. The exposure to isopropanol sometimes exceeded the Norwegian TLV. The exposure decreased when a separate exhaust ventilation was used. The exposure increased when the machine had automatic cleaning. The variables automatic cleaning and separate exhaust ventilation explained 59% of the variation in the "additive factor". The results of this study indicate that the most important source of solvent exposure in printing offices at present is the moisturizer used in the printing machines. We think it is worth giving attention to this exposure and making efforts to reduce it. (+info)
Fluorinated alcohol, the third group of cosolvents that stabilize the molten-globule state relative to a highly denatured state of cytochrome c.
The effects of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) on the conformation of cytochrome c (cyt c) at pH 1.9 were studied using a combination of spectroscopic and physical methods. Analysis varying the HFIP concentration showed that a compact denatured conformation (M(HF)) accumulates in a low concentration range of HFIP in the middle of structural transition from the highly unstructured acid-denatured state to the highly helical alcohol-denatured state of cyt c. This contrasts clearly with the effect of isopropanol (IP), in which no compact conformation accompanied with the transition. Analysis varying concentrations of HFIP and NaCl concurrently showed that the M(HF) state of cyt c is essentially identical to the salt-induced molten-globule (M(G)) state, and the M(G) state in the presence of salt was also stabilized by a low concentration of HFIP. Furthermore, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol stabilized M(HF) similarly to HFIP, supporting the proposition that the specific effect observed for HFIP is caused by fluorination of alcohol. The mechanism stabilizing compact conformation by HFIP remains unclear, but is probably distinct from that of salts and polyols, which are also known to stabilize the M(G)-like state. (+info)