Glial loss in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors.
The crystal structure of seabream antiquitin reveals the structural basis of its substrate specificity.
Can cluster structure affect kinetic method measurements? The curious case of glutamic acid's gas-phase acidity.
Identification and characterization of enzyme catalyzing conversion of N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde to N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic acid in Aspergillus niger AKU 3302.
L-glutamate enhances methylmercury toxicity by synergistically increasing oxidative stress.
(45/119)Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known environmental toxicant. With its lipophilic nature and high reactivity to sulfhydryl groups, it is widely distributed and accumulated in the body to damage cells. Oxidative stress is proposed as a major mechanism underlying the cytotoxic action of MeHg. In the present study, we found that L-glutamate (L-Glu) concentration-dependently increased MeHg cytotoxicity in HeLa S3 cells. The enhancement of the toxicity was accompanied by enhanced apoptosis, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased glutathione level. An anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine largely alleviated the cytotoxicity, suggesting enhanced oxidative stress behind L-Glu-elicited increase of MeHg toxicity. The effect was specific to L-Glu and L-alpha-aminoadipate, whereas D-Glu, L-aspartate, and D-aspartate were not effective. In addition, the cystine uptake by the cells was mostly mediated by a L-Glu/L-alpha-aminoadipate-sensitive amino acid transport system x(-)(C). All these results suggest that the inhibition of system x(-)(C) by L-Glu underlies the enhancement of MeHg cytotoxicity. The enhancement was highly synergistic because MeHg and L-Glu alone had little toxic effect in the conditions used. This synergism was confirmed in neural cells (neuroblastoma cell lines). It is proposed that similar mechanisms may underlie the neural toxicity of MeHg, particularly in the locality of lesions characteristic of MeHg toxicity. (+info)
Roles of glia limitans astrocytes and carbon monoxide in adenosine diphosphate-induced pial arteriolar dilation in newborn pigs.
A gene encoding lysine 6-aminotransferase, which forms the beta-lactam precursor alpha-aminoadipic acid, is located in the cluster of cephamycin biosynthetic genes in Nocardia lactamdurans.
(47/119)A gene (lat) encoding lysine 6-aminotransferase was found upstream of the pcbAB (encoding alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine synthetase) and pcbC (encoding isopenicillin N synthase) genes in the cluster of early cephamycin biosynthetic genes in Nocardia lactamdurans. The lat gene was separated by a small intergenic region of 64 bp from the 5' end of the pcbAB gene. The lat gene contained an open reading frame of 1,353 nucleotides (71.4% G + C) encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 48,811 Da. Expression of DNA fragments carrying the lat gene in Streptomyces lividans led to a high lysine 6-aminotransferase activity which was absent from untransformed S. lividans. The enzyme was partially purified from S. lividans(pULBS8) and showed a molecular mass of 52,800 Da as calculated by Sephadex gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequences which hybridized strongly with the lat gene of N. lactamdurans were found in four cephamycin-producing Streptomyces species but not in four other actinomycetes which are not known to produce beta-lactams, suggesting that the gene is specific for beta-lactam biosynthesis and is not involved in general lysine catabolism. The protein encoded by the lat gene showed similarity to ornithine-5-aminotransferases and N-acetylornithine-5-aminotransferases and contained a pyridoxal phosphate-binding consensus amino acid sequence around Lys-300 of the protein. The evolutionary implications of the lat gene as a true beta-lactam biosynthetic gene are discussed. (+info)
Evidence for a compartmentation of penicillin biosynthesis in a high- and a low-producing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum.
(48/119)Pulse-chase experiments using [U14C]valine were done with P2 and Q176, high- and low-penicillin-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The metabolic flux of this amino acid into protein and penicillin was measured, and compartmentation of penicillin biosynthesis was assessed. Strain P2 took up 14C-valine more slowly than strain Q176, but their rates of incorporation into protein were comparable. Incorporation of 14C-valine into penicillin occurred immediately with the high-producer P2, but exhibited a lag with Q176. After 14C-valine had been removed from the medium, the specific radioactivity of penicillin continued to increase in Q176 but started to decrease immediately in P2. The specific radioactivities of 14C-valine in protein and in penicillin were significantly different in both strains: Q176 had a higher specific radioactivity of valine in penicillin than P2, whereas P2 had a higher specific radioactivity of valine in protein than Q176. Moreover, the specific radioactivity of 14C-valine in penicillin was 20-fold higher in strain Q176 than in P2. These results indicate that penicillin and protein biosynthesis use different pools of cellular valine, and that exchange of valine between the two compartments is slow in the low-producer, but rapid in the high-producer strain. Hence these results indicate a further control point of penicillin biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum. (+info)