Characterization of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine oxidizing enzyme from Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. (33/119)

An oxidase catalyzing conversion of N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine (N(alpha)-Z-L-lysine) to N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde (N(alpha)-Z-L-AASA) was purified from Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1, and its properties were revealed. This enzyme catalyzed an oxidative deamination of the epsilon-amino group of N(alpha)-acyl-L-lysine and the alpha-amino group of N(epsilon)-acyl-L-lysine. The apparent K(m) value for N(alpha)-acetyl-L-lysine was much larger than that for N(epsilon)-acetyl-L-lysine. The peptidyl L-lysines, L-lysine and many other L-amino acids were also oxidized, but N(alpha)-acyl-D-lysine, N(epsilon)-acyl-D-lysine and D-amino acids were not. Thus, the conversion of N(alpha)-Z-L-lysine into N(alpha)-Z-L-AASA was catalyzed by the L-amino acid oxidase with broad substrate specificity. This enzyme, a flavoprotein with a molecular mass of 100 kDa, consisted of two identical subunits of 51 kDa.  (+info)

Astrocytes are a key conduit for upstream signaling of vasodilation during cerebral cortical neuronal activation in vivo. (34/119)

Astrocytes play an important role in the coupling between neuronal activity and brain blood flow via their capacity to "sense" neuronal activity and transmit that information to parenchymal arterioles. Here we show another role for astrocytes in neurovascular coupling: the ability to act as a signaling conduit for the vitally important process of upstream vasodilation (represented by pial arterioles) during both excessive (seizure) and physiological (sciatic nerve stimulation) increases in cerebral cortical neuronal activity. The predominance of an astrocytic rather than a vascular route was indicated by data showing that pial arteriolar-dilating responses to neuronal activation were completely blocked following selective disruption of the superficial glia limitans, whereas interference with interendothelial signaling was without effect. Results also revealed contributions from connexin 43, implying a role for gap junctions and/or hemichannels in the signaling process and that signaling from the glia limitans to pial arterioles may involve a diffusible mediator.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a dehydrogenase catalyzing conversion of N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde to N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic acid from rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. (35/119)

The enzyme catalyzing conversion of N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde (N alpha-Z-L-AASA) to N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic acid (N alpha-Z-L-AAA) in Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1 was identified, and its characteristics were revealed. This reaction was catalyzed by a dehydrogenase with a molecular mass of 59 kDa. The dehydrogenase exhibited enzyme activity on not only N alpha-Z-L-AASA but also N alpha-Z-D-AASA and short chain aliphatic aldehydes, but not on aromatic aldehydes and alcohols. The apparent Km values for N alpha-Z-L-AASA, N alpha-Z-D-AASA and NAD+ were estimated to be 3.8 mM, 14.1 mM and 0.16 mM, respectively. The NH2 terminal amino acid sequence of this enzyme exhibited a similarity to those of a piperidein-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Streptomyces clavuligerus and a putative dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus sp. RHA 1, but not to those of other microbial aldehyde dehydrogenases.  (+info)

Pharmacological disruption of the outer limiting membrane leads to increased retinal integration of transplanted photoreceptor precursors. (36/119)

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alpha-Aminoadipate induces progenitor cell properties of Muller glia in adult mice. (37/119)

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Analysis of selective production of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde and Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipic acid by Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. (38/119)

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Promoting optic nerve regeneration in adult mice with pharmaceutical approach. (39/119)

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Infusion of gliotoxins or a gap junction blocker in the prelimbic cortex increases alcohol preference in Wistar rats. (40/119)

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