A new microbial method for more efficient production of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde and Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-D-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde.
(25/119)A new biochemical method for more efficient production of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde (Nalpha-Z-L-AASA) and Nalpha-Z-D-AASA was developed with cells of Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. Using the cells harvested after 1 d of cultivation, more than 95 mM Nalpha-Z-L-AASA was produced from 100 mM Nalpha-Z-L-lysine by incubating at pH 5.0 for 1 d at 30 degrees C or by incubating at pH 7.0 for 2 d at 10 degrees C. A similar conversion yield of Nalpha-Z-D-AASA was also obtained under the same conditions. These reaction times required were 1/4 and 1/2 of the respective ones by the method with amine oxidase, and the yields of Nalpha-Z-L-AASA and Nalpha-Z-D-AASA were 2 times higher than the respective ones by the method with amine oxidase. In addition, this method had the advantages of not requiring purification of enzyme and addition of catalase. Thus, the microbial method proposed here was superior to the chemical and other biochemical methods in simplicity, reaction rate, and yield. (+info)
Contributions of astrocytes and CO to pial arteriolar dilation to glutamate in newborn pigs.
(26/119)Astrocytes can act as intermediaries between neurons and cerebral arterioles to regulate vascular tone in response to neuronal activity. Release of glutamate from presynaptic neurons increases blood flow to match metabolic demands. CO is a gasotransmitter that can be related to neural function and blood flow regulation in the brain. The present study addresses the hypothesis that glutamatergic stimulation promotes perivascular astrocyte CO production and pial arteriolar dilation in the newborn brain. Experiments used anesthetized newborn pigs with closed cranial windows, piglet astrocytes, and cerebrovascular endothelial cells in primary culture and immunocytochemical visualization of astrocytic markers. Pial arterioles and arteries of newborn pigs are ensheathed by astrocytes visualized by glial fibrillary acidic protein staining. Treatment (2 h) of astrocytes in culture with L-2-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA), followed by 14 h in toxin free medium, dose-dependently increased cell detachment, suggesting injury. Conversely, 16 h of continuous exposure to L-AAA caused no decrease in endothelial cell attachment. In vivo, topical L-AAA (2 mM, 5 h) disrupted the cortical glia limitans histologically. Such treatment also eliminated pial arteriolar dilation to the astrocyte-dependent dilator ADP and to glutamate but not to isoproterenol or CO. Glutamate stimulated CO production by the brain surface that also was abolished following L-AAA. In contrast, tetrodotoxin blocked dilation to N-methyl-D-aspartate but not to glutamate, isoproterenol, or CO or the glutamate-induced increase in CO. The concurrent loss of CO production and pial arteriolar dilation to glutamate following astrocyte injury suggests astrocytes may employ CO as a gasotransmitter for glutamatergic cerebrovascular dilation. (+info)
Pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status alters lysine metabolism and modulates mitochondrial DNA content in the mouse and rat.
(27/119)Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) added to purified diets devoid of PQQ improves indices of perinatal development in rats and mice. Herein, PQQ nutritional status and lysine metabolism are described, prompted by a report that PQQ functions as a vitamin-like enzymatic cofactor important in lysine metabolism (Nature 422  832). Alternatively, we propose that PQQ influences lysine metabolism, but by mechanisms that more likely involve changes in mitochondrial content. PQQ deprivation in both rats and mice resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial content. In rats, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alphaAA), which is derived from alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alphaAAS) and made from lysine in mitochondria, and the plasma levels of amino acids known to be oxidized in mitochondria (e.g., Thr, Ser, and Gly) were correlated with changes in the liver mitochondrial content of PQQ-deprived rats, but not PQQ-supplemented rats. In contrast, the levels of NAD dependent alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AASDH), a cytosolic enzyme important to alphaAA production from alphaAAS, was not influenced by PQQ dietary status. Moreover, the levels of U26 mRNA were not significantly changed even when diets differed markedly in PQQ and dietary lysine content. U26 mRNA levels were measured, because of U26's proposed, albeit questionable role as a PQQ-dependent enzyme involved in alphaAA formation. (+info)
A novel type of lysine oxidase: L-lysine-epsilon-oxidase.
(28/119)The melanogenic marine bacterium M. mediterranea synthesizes marinocine, a protein with antibacterial activity. We cloned the gene coding for this protein and named it lodA [P. Lucas-Elio, P. Hernandez, A. Sanchez-Amat, F. Solano, Purification and partial characterization of marinocine, a new broad-spectrum antibacterial protein produced by Marinomonas mediterranea. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1721 (2005) 193-203; P. Lucas-Elio, D. Gomez, F. Solano, A. Sanchez-Amat, The antimicrobial activity of marinocine, synthesized by M. mediterranea, is due to the hydrogen peroxide generated by its lysine oxidase activity. J. Bacteriol. 188 (2006) 2493-2501]. Now, we show that this protein is a new type of lysine oxidase which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of free L-lysine into 6-semialdehyde 2-aminoadipic acid, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. This new enzyme is compared to other enzymes related to lysine transformation. Two different groups have been used for comparison. Enzymes in the first group lead to 2-aminoadipic acid as a final product. The second one would be enzymes catalyzing the oxidative deamination of lysine releasing H2O2, namely lysine-alpha-oxidase (LalphaO) and lysyl oxidase (Lox). Kinetic properties, substrate specificity and inhibition pattern show clear differences with all above mentioned lysine-related enzymes. Thus, we propose to rename this enzyme lysine-epsilon-oxidase (lod for the gene) instead of marinocine. Lod shows high stereospecificity for free L-lysine, it is inhibited by substrate analogues, such as cadaverine and 6-aminocaproic acid, and also by beta-aminopropionitrile, suggesting the existence of a tyrosine-derived quinone cofactor at its active site. (+info)
2-aminoadipic acid is a marker of protein carbonyl oxidation in the aging human skin: effects of diabetes, renal failure and sepsis.
(29/119)We hypothesized that the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in longlived proteins oxidatively deaminates with age forming the carbonyl compound, allysine (alpha-aminoadipic acid-delta-semialdehyde), which can further oxidize into 2-aminoadipic acid. In the present study, we measured both products in insoluble human skin collagen from n=117 individuals of age range 10-90 years, of which n=61 and n=56 were non-diabetic and diabetic respectively, and a total of n=61 individuals had either acute or chronic renal failure. Allysine was reduced by borohydride into 6-hydroxynorleucine and both products were measured in acid hydrolysates by selective ion monitoring gas chromatography (GC)-MS. The results showed that 2-aminoadipic acid (P<0.0001), but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (P=0.14), significantly increased with age reaching levels of 1 and 0.3 mmol/mol lysine at late age respectively. Diabetes in the absence of renal failure significantly (P<0.0001) increased 2-aminoadipic acid up to <3 mmol/mol, but not 6-hydroxynorleucine (levels<0.4 mmol/mol, P=0.18). Renal failure even in the absence of diabetes markedly increased levels reaching up to <0.5 and 8 mmol/mol for 6-hydroxynorleucine and 2-aminoadipic acid respectively. Septicaemia significantly (P<0.0001) elevated 2-aminoadipic acid in non-diabetic, but not diabetic individuals, and mildly correlated with other glycoxidation markers, carboxymethyl-lysine and the methylglyoxal-derived products, carboxyethyl-lysine, argpyrimidine and MODIC (methylglyoxal-derived imidazolium cross-link). These results provide support for the presence of metal-catalysed oxidation (the Suyama pathway) in diabetes and the possible activation of myeloperoxidase during sepsis. We conclude that 2-aminoadipic acid is a more reliable marker for protein oxidation than its precursor, allysine. Its mechanism of formation in each of these conditions needs to be elucidated. (+info)
Insights into the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway of the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis: comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism.
(30/119)Ignicoccus hospitalis is an autotrophic hyperthermophilic archaeon that serves as a host for another parasitic/symbiotic archaeon, Nanoarchaeum equitans. In this study, the biosynthetic pathways of I. hospitalis were investigated by in vitro enzymatic analyses, in vivo (13)C-labeling experiments, and genomic analyses. Our results suggest the operation of a so far unknown pathway of autotrophic CO(2) fixation that starts from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The cyclic regeneration of acetyl-CoA, the primary CO(2) acceptor molecule, has not been clarified yet. In essence, acetyl-CoA is converted into pyruvate via reductive carboxylation by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Pyruvate-water dikinase converts pyruvate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is carboxylated to oxaloacetate by PEP carboxylase. An incomplete citric acid cycle is operating: citrate is synthesized from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA by a (re)-specific citrate synthase, whereas a 2-oxoglutarate-oxidizing enzyme is lacking. Further investigations revealed that several special biosynthetic pathways that have recently been described for various archaea are operating. Isoleucine is synthesized via the uncommon citramalate pathway and lysine via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway. Gluconeogenesis is achieved via a reverse Embden-Meyerhof pathway using a novel type of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Pentosephosphates are formed from hexosephosphates via the suggested ribulose-monophosphate pathway, whereby formaldehyde is released from C-1 of hexose. The organism may not contain any sugar-metabolizing pathway. This comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism of I. hospitalis revealed further evidence for the unexpected and unexplored diversity of metabolic pathways within the (hyperthermophilic) archaea. (+info)
Synthesis of tritium-labelled isopenicillin N, penicillin N and 6-aminopenicillanic acid.
(31/119)1. Phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide 4-methoxybenzyl ester was labelled with 3H in its 2-beta-methyl group. Its specific radioactivity was 362 mCi/mmol. 2. Removal of the side chain of this compound yielded the corresponding ester of 6-aminopenicillanic acid sulphoxide and coupling of the latter with the appropriate protected alpha-aminoadipic acid gave 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonylisopenicillin N sulphoxide di-4-methoxybenzyl ester or the corresponding derivative of penicillin N. 3. Removal of the protective groups by hydrogenolysis and reduction of the sulphoxide group yielded 3H-labelled isopenicillin N or penicillin N. 4. 3H-labelled phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide was obtained by hydrogenolysis from its 4-methoxybenzyl ester. Reduction of its sulphoxide group and subsequent removal of the side chain gave 3H-labelled 6-aminopenicillanic acid. (+info)
Covalent binding of rofecoxib, but not other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, to allysine aldehyde in elastin of human aorta.
(32/119)In rats, it has been reported that rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, reacts with the aldehyde group of allysine in elastin to give a condensation covalent adduct, thereby preventing the formation of cross-linkages in the elastin and causing degradation of the elastic fibers in aortas in vivo. Acid, organic solvent, and proteolytic enzyme treatments of human aortic homogenate after incubation with [(14)C]rofecoxib demonstrated that most of the radioactivity is covalently bound to elastin. The in vitro covalent binding was inhibited in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, D-penicillamine, and hydralazine, which suggested that the aldehyde group of allysine in human elastin was relevant to the covalent binding. The in vitro covalent binding of [(14)C]rofecoxib was significantly decreased by the addition of only nonradiolabeled rofecoxib but not the other COX-2 inhibitors, celecoxib, valdecoxib, etoricoxib, and CS-706 [2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl 1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-1H-pyrrole], a novel selective COX-2 inhibitor. All the above COX-2 inhibitors except for rofecoxib had no reactivity with the aldehyde group of benzaldehyde used as a model compound of allysine aldehyde under a physiological pH condition. On the other hand, no retention of the radioactivity of [(14)C]rofecoxib was observed in human aortic endothelial cells in vitro, suggesting that rofecoxib is not retained in aortic endothelial cells in vivo. These results suggest that rofecoxib, but not other COX-2 inhibitors, is capable of covalently binding to the aldehyde group of allysine in human elastin. This might be one of the main causes of cardiovascular events by rofecoxib in clinical situations. (+info)