Inactivation of the lys7 gene, encoding saccharopine reductase in Penicillium chrysogenum, leads to accumulation of the secondary metabolite precursors piperideine-6-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid from alpha-aminoadipic acid.
(17/119)Pipecolic acid serves as a precursor of the biosynthesis of the alkaloids slaframine and swainsonine (an antitumor agent) in some fungi. It is not known whether other fungi are able to synthesize pipecolic acid. Penicillium chrysogenum has a very active alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway that is used for the synthesis of this precursor of penicillin. The lys7 gene, encoding saccharopine reductase in P. chrysogenum, was target inactivated by the double-recombination method. Analysis of a disrupted strain (named P. chrysogenum SR1-) showed the presence of a mutant lys7 gene lacking about 1,000 bp in the 3'-end region. P. chrysogenum SR1- lacked saccharopine reductase activity, which was recovered after transformation of this mutant with the intact lys7 gene in an autonomously replicating plasmid. P. chrysogenum SR1- was a lysine auxotroph and accumulated piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. When mutant P. chrysogenum SR1- was grown with L-lysine as the sole nitrogen source and supplemented with DL-alpha-aminoadipic acid, a high level of pipecolic acid accumulated intracellularly. A comparison of strain SR1- with a lys2-defective mutant provided evidence showing that P. chrysogenum synthesizes pipecolic acid from alpha-aminoadipic acid and not from L-lysine catabolism. (+info)
Influence of the glia limitans on pial arteriolar relaxation in the rat.
(18/119)We examined whether damage to the glia limitans (GL), via exposure to the gliotoxin l-alpha-aminoadipic acid (l-alphaAAA), alters hypercapnia-induced pial arteriolar dilation in vivo. Anesthetized female rats were prepared with closed cranial windows. Pial arteriolar diameters were measured using intravital microscopy. l-alphaAAA (2 mM) was injected into the space under the cranial windows 24 h before the study, and injury to the GL was confirmed by light microscopy. l-alphaAAA was associated with a reduction in pial arteriolar CO(2) reactivity to 40-50% of the level seen in vehicle-treated controls, with no further reduction in the CO(2) response after nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibition via N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA). Subsequent blockade of prostanoid synthesis, via indomethacin (Indo), reduced CO(2) reactivity to 10-15% of normal. In vehicle-treated controls, l-NNA, followed by Indo, reduced the response to approximately 50% and then to 15-20% of the normocapnic value, respectively. On the other hand, l-alphaAAA had no effect on vascular responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine or the NO donor SNAP and did not alter cortical somatosensory evoked responses. This indicates an absence of any direct l-alphaAAA actions on pial arterioles or influence on neuronal transmission. Furthermore, l-alphaAAA did not alter the vasodilation elicited by topical application of an acidic artificial cerebrospinal fluid solution, suggesting that the GL influences the pial arteriolar relaxation elicited by hypercapnic, but not local extracellular (EC), acidosis. That differences exist in the mechanisms mediating hypercapnia- versus EC acidosis-induced pial arteriolar dilations was further exemplified by the finding that topical application of a neuronal NOS (nNOS)-selective blocker (ARR-17477) reduced the response to hypercapnia (by approximately 65%) but not the response to EC acidosis. Disruption of GL gap junctional communication, using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) connexin43 knockdown approach, was accompanied by a 33% lower CO(2) reactivity versus missense ODN-treated controls. These results suggest that the GL contribution to the hypercapnic vascular response appears to involve the NO-dependent component rather than the prostanoid-dependent component and may involve gap junctional communication. We speculate that the GL may act to facilitate the spread, to pial vessels, of hypercapnia-induced vasodilating signals arising in the comparatively few scattered nNOS neurons that lie well beneath the GL. (+info)
alpha-Aminoadipate aminotransferase from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus.
(19/119)The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 synthesizes lysine through alpha-aminoadipate (AAA). In this study, a T. thermophilus gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses transamination of AAA was cloned as a mammalian kynurenine/AAA aminotransferase (Kat2) gene homologue. A T. thermophilus mutant with disruption of the Kat2 homologue required a longer lag phase for growth and showed slower growth in minimal medium. Furthermore, addition of AAA or lysine shortened the lag phase and improved the growth rate. The Kat2 homologue was therefore termed lysN. LysN recognizes not only 2-oxoadipate, an intermediate of lysine biosynthesis, but also 2-oxoisocaproate, 2-oxoisovalerate and 2-oxo-3-methylvalerate, intermediates of leucine, valine and isoleucine biosyntheses, respectively, along with oxaloacetate, a compound in the TCA cycle, as an amino acceptor. These results suggest multiple roles of LysN in several cellular metabolic pathways including lysine and branched-chain amino acid biosyntheses. (+info)
Uptake of the beta-lactam precursor alpha-aminoadipic acid in Penicillium chrysogenum is mediated by the acidic and the general amino acid permease.
(20/119)External addition of the beta-lactam precursor alpha-aminoadipic acid to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum leads to an increased intracellular alpha-aminoadipic acid concentration and an increase in penicillin production. The exact route for alpha-aminoadipic acid uptake is not known, although the general amino acid and acidic amino acid permeases have been implicated in this process. Their corresponding genes, PcGAP1 and PcDIP5, of P. chrysogenum were cloned and functionally expressed in a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (M4276) in which the acidic amino acid and general amino acid permease genes (DIP5 and GAP1, respectively) are disrupted. Transport assays show that both PcGap1 and PcDip5 mediated the uptake of alpha-aminoadipic acid, although PcGap1 showed a higher affinity for alpha-aminoadipic acid than PcDip5 (K(m) values, 230 and 800 microM, respectively). Leucine strongly inhibits alpha-aminoadipic acid transport via PcGap1 but not via PcDip5. This difference was exploited to estimate the relative contribution of each transport system to the alpha-aminoadipic acid flux in beta-lactam-producing P. chrysogenum. The transport measurements demonstrate that both PcGap1 and PcDip5 contribute to the alpha-aminoadipic acid flux. (+info)
The role of the glia limitans in ADP-induced pial arteriolar relaxation in intact and ovariectomized female rats.
(21/119)We examined whether the glia limitans (GL) influences pial arteriolar relaxation elicited in vivo by the purinergic (P(2)Y(1) receptor) agonist ADP in female rats, and whether that influence is altered in ovariectomized (Ovx) females. A validated model for GL injury was used, topical application of the gliotoxin L-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-alphaAAA), 24 h before the study. In both intact and Ovx females, L-alphaAAA had no effect on responses to the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine, but ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilations were significantly reduced (by 33-90%), compared with vehicle-treated controls. When N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) was administered to L-alphaAAA-treated rats, the ADP response was virtually lost in intact females, but no further reductions were observed in the Ovx rats. On the other hand, in L-alphaAAA-treated Ovx females, when the gap junction blocker, Gap 27, was subsequently added to the suffusate, ADP reactivity fell to very low levels. In vehicle-treated control rats, L-NNA and Gap 27 reduced ADP reactivity by approximately 50% in intact and Ovx females, respectively. An earlier study indicated that the endothelium was a key site of influence for L-NNA (intact) and Gap 27 (Ovx). Thus present and previous results imply that the ADP response in pial arterioles represents the additive actions of an endothelial and a GL component. That supposition was confirmed in the present study by the finding that combining endothelial and GL injury produced an essentially complete loss of ADP reactivity in both intact and Ovx females. Finally, topical application of the selective P(2)Y(1) antagonist, MRS-2179, was associated with a nearly complete suppression of the ADP response in both intact and Ovx females. These results suggest that 1) ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation involves additive contributions from P(2)Y(1) receptors present in both vascular endothelium and the GL; 2) the influence of the GL component is not altered by ovariectomy; and 3) the gap junction-dependent component of the ADP response in Ovx females is unlikely to include the GL and probably resides in the vessels themselves. (+info)
The type of collagen cross-link determines the reversibility of experimental skin fibrosis.
(22/119)Fibrotic processes in humans are characterised by an excessive accumulation of collagen containing increased levels of hydroxyallysine-derived cross-links. The occurrence of these cross-links appears to be an important criterion in assessing the irreversibility of fibrosis. We hypothesise that increased hydroxyallysine cross-linking results in a collagenous matrix that is less susceptible to proteolytic degradation and therefore the collagen deposition is no longer reversible. In this report, we show that collagen matrices with increased hydroxyallysine cross-link levels were less susceptible to matrix metalloproteinase 1 degradation than are collagen matrices containing low hydroxyallysine levels. These data indicate that the type of collagen cross-link influences collagen catabolism. In vivo evidence for the importance of the cross-linking type in determining the reversibility of the fibrotic process was found using the bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis mouse model. The analysis of the accumulated collagen in the fibrotic skin of bleomycin-treated mice did not reveal an increase in hydroxyallysine cross-link levels. In concurrence with our hypothesis, the collagen accumulation resolved in time when the mice were no longer receiving bleomycin treatment, showing the reversibility of the fibrosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that the type of collagen cross-linking is an important factor in determining whether the outcome of the fibrotic process is reversible or not. (+info)
Biochemical studies on the activity of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus.
(23/119)The enzyme activity of purified delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) synthetase from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied biochemically. The dependence of ACV synthetase activity on reaction parameters, including substrates, cofactors, temperature and pH, were determined, resulting in a substantially increased enzyme activity. The activity is very labile to high temperature and is also unstable at acidic pH. The enzyme specificity is strict towards L-alpha-aminoadipate, but rather loose with respect to L-valine; certain modifications of L-cysteine can also be tolerated. Some unnatural tripeptides synthesized by ACV synthetase can be converted into bioactive compounds by isopenicillin N synthase. The only nutrient found to negatively affect ACV synthetase activity is phosphate, but various compounds such as thiol-blocking reagents and ATP-utilization products (AMP and pyrophosphate) are inhibitory to the enzyme. (+info)
Multiple and interconnected pathways for L-lysine catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.
(24/119)L-lysine catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was generally thought to occur via the aminovalerate pathway. In this study we demonstrate the operation of the alternative aminoadipate pathway with the intermediates D-lysine, L-pipecolate, and aminoadipate. The simultaneous operation of both pathways for the use of L-lysine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was confirmed genetically. Mutants with mutations in either pathway failed to use L-lysine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, although they still used L-lysine as the nitrogen source, albeit at reduced growth rates. New genes were identified in both pathways, including the davB and davA genes that encode the enzymes involved in the oxidation of L-lysine to delta-aminovaleramide and the hydrolysis of the latter to delta-aminovalerate, respectively. The amaA, dkpA, and amaB genes, in contrast, encode proteins involved in the transformation of Delta1-piperidine-2-carboxylate into aminoadipate. Based on L-[U-13C, U-15N]lysine experiments, we quantified the relative use of pathways in the wild type and its isogenic mutants. The fate of 13C label of L-lysine indicates that in addition to the existing connection between the D- and L-lysine pathways at the early steps of the catabolism of L-lysine mediated by a lysine racemase, there is yet another interconnection at the lower end of the pathways in which aminoadipate is channeled to yield glutarate. This study establishes an unequivocal relationship between gene and pathway enzymes in the metabolism of L-lysine, which is of crucial importance for the successful colonization of the rhizosphere of plants by this microorganism. (+info)