Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/119)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

In Saccharomyces cerevisae, feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase isoenzymes by lysine modulates the activation of LYS gene expression by Lys14p. (2/119)

Expression of the structural genes for lysine biosynthesis responds to an induction mechanism mediated by the transcriptional activator Lys14p in the presence of alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde (alphaAASA), an intermediate of the pathway acting as a coinducer. This activation is reduced by the presence of lysine in the growth medium, leading to apparent repression. In this report we demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two genes, LYS20 and LYS21, encoding two homocitrate synthase isoenzymes which are located in the nucleus. Each isoform is inhibited by lysine with a different sensitivity. Lysine-overproducing mutants were isolated as resistant to aminoethylcysteine, a toxic lysine analog. Mutations, LYS20fbr and LYS21fbr, are allelic to LYS20 and LYS21, and lead to desensitization of homocitrate synthase activity towards lysine and to a loss of apparent repression by this amino acid. There is a fair correlation between the I0.5 of homocitrate synthase for lysine, the intracellular lysine pool and the levels of Lys enzymes, confirming the importance of the activity control of the first step of the pathway for the expression of LYS genes. The data are consistent with the conclusion that inhibition by lysine of Lys14p activation results from the control of alphaAASA production through the feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase activity.  (+info)

RIT 2214, a new biosynthetic penicillin produced by a mutant of Cephalosporium acremonium. (3/119)

A number of lysine-requiring auxotrophs of Cephalosporium acremonium were investigated for incorporation of side-chain precursors and for accumulation of beta-lactam compounds. One of the auxotrophs, Acremonium chrysogenum ATCC 20389, producing cephalosporin C and penicillin N only if grown in media supplemented with DL-alpha-amino-adipic acid (DL-alpha-AAA), was found to use L-S-carboxymethylcysteine (L-CMC) as a side-chain precursor for the synthesis of a new penicillin (RIT 2214). No corresponding cephalosporin was detected. The penicillin present in the culture filtrate, was concentrated by adsorption on activated carbon and successive column chromatography on Amberlite IRA-68 and Amberlite XAD-4. Final purification was achieved by cellulose column chromatography. RIT 2214 was identified as 6-(D)-[(2-amino-2-carboxy)-ethylthio]-acetamido]-penicillanic acid by spectral analysis, bioactivity spectrum, elucidation of side-chain structure and finally by semisynthesis. Its biological properties were also evaluated.  (+info)

Nonlinear disposition kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, in rats. (4/119)

The excretion and tissue distribution kinetics of a novel antifolate, MX-68, were evaluated under conditions of a continuous steady-state infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs). The biliary excretion clearance defined with respect to the hepatic concentration (CL(bile, h)) was much lower in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats with a hereditary deficiency in canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter than that in SDRs, suggesting the involvement of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in its transport across the bile canalicular membrane. The CL(bile, h) in SDRs increased as the infusion rate increased; this can be largely explained by saturation of the intracellular binding of MX-68. On the other hand, the urinary excretion clearance defined with respect to the renal concentration (CL(urine, k)) was comparable for the two strains but showed an increase and subsequent decrease as the renal concentration increased. This nonlinear profile was also found even when the CL(urine, k) was normalized by the unbound fraction in kidney. Therefore, this kinetic profile represents the saturation of both reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption of MX-68 in kidney was supported by its saturable transport by renal brush border membrane vesicles at an inward H(+) gradient. The liver-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio decreased as the steady-state plasma concentration increased, suggesting that MX-68 is taken up by a saturable mechanism or mechanisms. Thus, the saturation of transport systems across several plasma membranes and intracellular binding in both the liver and kidney produce the nonlinear disposition of MX-68.  (+info)

A prokaryotic gene cluster involved in synthesis of lysine through the amino adipate pathway: a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis. (5/119)

In previous studies we determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster containing lys20, hacA (lys4A), hacB (lys4B), orfE, orfF, rimK, argC, and argB of Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium. In this study, we characterized the role of each gene in the cluster by gene disruption and examined auxotrophy in the disruptants. All disruptants except for the orfE disruption showed a lysine auxotrophic phenotype. This was surprising because this cluster consists of genes coding for unrelated proteins based on their names, which had been tentatively designated by homology analysis. Although the newly found pathway contains alpha-aminoadipic acid as a lysine biosynthetic intermediate, this pathway is not the same as the eukaryotic one. When each of the gene products was phylogenetically analyzed, we found that genes evolutionarily-related to the lysine biosynthetic genes in T. thermophilus were all present in a hyperthermophilic and anaerobic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and formed a gene cluster in a manner similar to that in T. thermophilus. Furthermore, this gene cluster was analogous in part to the present leucine and arginine biosyntheses pathways. This lysine biosynthesis cluster is assumed to be one of the origins of lysine biosynthesis and could therefore become a key to the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

The catabolic function of the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway in plants is associated with unidirectional activity of lysine-oxoglutarate reductase, but not saccharopine dehydrogenase. (6/119)

Whereas plants and animals use the alpha-aminoadipic acid pathway to catabolize lysine, yeast and fungi use the very same pathway to synthesize lysine. These two groups of organisms also possess structurally distinct forms of two enzymes in this pathway, namely lysine-oxoglutarate reductase (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase; LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH): in plants and animals these enzymes are linked on to a single bifunctional polypeptide, while in yeast and fungi they exist as separate entities. In addition, yeast LKR and SDH possess bi-directional activities, and their anabolic function is regulated by complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls, which apparently ascertain differential accumulation of intermediate metabolites; in plants, the regulation of the catabolic function of these two enzymes is not known. To elucidate the regulation of the catabolic function of plant bifunctional LKR/SDH enzymes, we have used yeast as an expression system to test whether a plant LKR/SDH also possesses bi-directional LKR and SDH activities, similar to the yeast enzymes. The Arabidopsis enzyme complemented a yeast SDH, but not LKR, null mutant. Identical results were obtained when deletion mutants encoding only the LKR or SDH domains of this bifunctional polypeptide were expressed individually in the yeast cells. Moreover, activity assays showed that the Arabidopsis LKR possessed catabolic, but not anabolic, activity, and its uni-directional activity stems from its structure rather than its linkage to SDH. Our results suggest that the uni-directional activity of LKR plays an important role in regulating the catabolic function of the alpha-amino adipic acid pathway in plants.  (+info)

Crystal structure of saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an enzyme of the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis. (7/119)

BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis of the essential amino acid lysine in higher fungi and cyanobacteria occurs via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is completely different from the lysine biosynthetic pathway found in plants and bacteria. The penultimate reaction in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway is catalysed by NADPH-dependent saccharopine reductase. We set out to determine the structure of this enzyme as a first step in exploring the structural biology of fungal lysine biosynthesis. RESULTS: We have determined the three-dimensional structure of saccharopine reductase from the plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea in its apo form to 2.0 A resolution and as a ternary complex with NADPH and saccharopine to 2.1 A resolution. Saccharopine reductase is a homodimer, and each subunit consists of three domains, which are not consecutive in amino acid sequence. Domain I contains a variant of the Rossmann fold that binds NADPH. Domain II folds into a mixed seven-stranded beta sheet flanked by alpha helices and is involved in substrate binding and dimer formation. Domain III is all-helical. The structure analysis of the ternary complex reveals a large movement of domain III upon ligand binding. The active site is positioned in a cleft between the NADPH-binding domain and the second alpha/beta domain. Saccharopine is tightly bound to the enzyme via a number of hydrogen bonds to invariant amino acid residues. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the structure of the ternary complex of saccharopine reductase, an enzymatic mechanism is proposed that includes the formation of a Schiff base as a key intermediate. Despite the lack of overall sequence homology, the fold of saccharopine reductase is similar to that observed in some enzymes of the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis in bacteria. These structural similarities suggest an evolutionary relationship between two different major families of amino acid biosynthetic pathway, the glutamate and aspartate families.  (+info)

Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. (8/119)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation results in loss of function and structural alteration of proteins. The oxidative process affects a variety of side amino acid groups, some of which are converted to carbonyl compounds. Spectrophotometric measurement of these moieties, after their reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, is a simple, accurate technique that has been widely used to reveal increased levels of protein carbonyls in aging and disease. We have initiated studies aimed at elucidating the chemical nature of protein carbonyls. Methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with isotopic dilution were developed for the quantitation of glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes after their reduction to hydroxyaminovaleric and hydroxyaminocaproic acids. Analysis of model proteins oxidized in vitro by Cu2+/ascorbate revealed that these two compounds constitute the majority of protein carbonyls generated. Glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes were also detected in rat liver proteins, where they constitute approximately 60% of the total protein carbonyl value. Aminoadipic semialdehyde was also measured in protein extracts from HeLa cells, and its level increased as a consequence of oxidative stress to cell cultures. These results indicate that glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes are the main carbonyl products of metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins, and that this reaction is a major route leading to the generation of protein carbonyls in biological samples.  (+info)