Human brain short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase is a single-domain multifunctional enzyme. Characterization of a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
Human brain short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was found to catalyze the oxidation of 17beta-estradiol and dihydroandrosterone as well as alcohols. Mitochondria have been demonstrated to be the proper location of this NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase in cells, although its primary structure is identical to an amyloid beta-peptide binding protein reportedly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ERAB). This fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme was identified as a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase responsible for the inactivation of sex steroid hormones. The catalytic rate constant of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 0.66 min-1 with apparent Km values of 43 and 50 microM for 17beta-estradiol and NAD+, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of this enzyme for the oxidation of 17beta-estradiol was comparable with that of peroxisomal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4. As a result, the human SCHAD gene product, a single-domain multifunctional enzyme, appears to function in two different pathways of lipid metabolism. Because the catalytic functions of human brain short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase could weaken the protective effects of estrogen and generate aldehydes in neurons, it is proposed that a high concentration of this enzyme in brain is a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. (+info)
Unique multifunctional HSD17B4 gene product: 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and D-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/hydratase involved in Zellweger syndrome.
Six types of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyzing the conversion of estrogens and androgens at position C17 have been identified so far. The peroxisomal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17beta-HSD 4, gene name HSD17B4) catalyzes the oxidation of estradiol with high preference over the reduction of estrone. The highest levels of 17beta-HSD 4 mRNA transcription and specific activity are found in liver and kidney followed by ovary and testes. A 3 kb mRNA codes for an 80 kDa (737 amino acids) protein featuring domains which are not present in the other 17beta-HSDs. The N-terminal domain of 17beta-HSD 4 reveals only 25% amino acid similarity with the other types of 17beta-HSDs. The 80 kDa protein is N-terminally cleaved to a 32 kDa enzymatically active fragment. Both the 80 kDa and the N-terminal 32 kDa (amino acids 1-323) protein are able to perform the dehydrogenase reaction not only with steroids at the C17 position but also with D-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The enzyme is not active with L-stereoisomers. The central part of the 80 kDa protein (amino acids 324-596) catalyzes the 2-enoyl-acyl-CoA hydratase reaction with high efficiency. The C-terminal part of the 80 kDa protein (amino acids 597-737) facilitates the transfer of 7-dehydrocholesterol and phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro. The HSD17B4 gene is stimulated by progesterone, and ligands of PPARalpha (peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor alpha) such as clofibrate, and is down-regulated by phorbol esters. Mutations in the HSD17B4 lead to a fatal form of Zellweger syndrome. (+info)
Enoyl-CoA hydratase deficiency: identification of a new type of D-bifunctional protein deficiency.
D-bifunctional protein is involved in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. In line with the central role of D-bifunctional protein in the beta-oxidation of these three types of fatty acids, all patients with D-bifunctional protein deficiency so far reported in the literature show elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and bile acid inter-mediates. In contrast, we now report two novel patients with D-bifunctional protein deficiency who both have normal levels of bile acid intermediates. Complementation analysis and D-bifunctional protein activity measurements revealed that both patients had an isolated defect in the enoyl-CoA hydratase domain of D-bifunctional protein. Subsequent mutation analysis showed that both patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (N457Y), which is located in the enoyl-CoA hydratase coding part of the D-bifunctional protein gene. Expression of the mutant protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the N457Y mutation is the disease-causing mutation. Immunoblot analysis of patient fibroblast homogenates showed that the protein levels of full-length D-bifunctional protein were strongly reduced while the enoyl-CoA hydratase component produced after processing within the peroxisome was undetectable, which indicates that the mutation leads to an unstable protein. (+info)
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD)/17-ketosteroid reductase (KSR) family; nomenclature and main characteristics of the 17HSD/KSR enzymes.
A number of enzymes possessing 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/17-ketosteroid reductase (17HSD/KSR) activities have been described and cloned, but their nomenclature needs specification. To clarify the present situation, descriptions of the eight cloned 17HSD/KSRs are given and guidelines for the classification of novel 17HSD/KSR enzymes are presented. (+info)
Aromatase and sex steroid receptors in human vena cava.
Among sex steroids, especially estrogen metabolism has been considered to play a role in the function and pathology of human veins. We investigated the expression and activity of the estrogen-producing enzyme aromatase and estrogen receptor (ER) in human vena cava to assess possible in situ biosynthesis of estrogens and their modes of action. We first examined aromatase expression by immunohistochemistry in human inferior vena cava obtained from 29 autopsy cases (11 males, 18 females, 63.6 +/- 3.0 years old). We then semiquantitated the level of aromatase mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 24 cases and aromatase activity by 3H-water assay in 15 cases to examine whether or not and in which cell types aromatase was expressed. We also studied alternative use of multiple exon 1s of its gene and immunolocalization of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (17beta-HSD I), which converts estrone produced by aromatase to estradiol, a biologically active estrogen and ER. Aromatase and 17beta-HSD I immunoreactivity were both detected in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the media in all the cases and in endothelial cells (EC) in 20 and 22 cases, respectively. ER immunoreactivity was detected in SMC of vena cava in 21 cases. The amount of aromatase mRNA was significantly greater in the cases utilizing 1c (I.3) or 1d (P.II) of exon 1 (9 cases, 191.1 +/- 26.3 attomol/ng total RNA) than those utilizing 1b (I.4) as the promoter (14 cases, 50.6 +/- 13.0 attomol/ng total RNA) (p < 0.01). Significant correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between the amount of aromatase mRNA and aromatase activity in 15 cases examined. No significant correlation was detected between the amount of aromatase mRNA or aromatase labeling index and the ER status. These results suggest that estrone and estradiol are produced in the human vena cava and that their production is mediated by aromatase and 17beta-HSD I, respectively but not all of these locally synthesized estrogens may not work directly in situ. (+info)
Structure and activity of the murine type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene(1).
17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) play a crucial role in the control of active sex steroid intracellular levels. Seven types of 17beta-HSD have been described. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse type 5 17beta-HSD belonging to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, in contrast with types 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 17beta-HSD which belong to the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. The gene spans 16 kb and contains 9 exons separated by 8 introns. Primer extension analysis identified a major transcription start site beginning 50 nucleotides upstream from the ATG initiation codon. Northern blot analysis showed a high mRNA expression level in the liver and a weaker signal in the kidney. To determine more precisely the substrate specificity of the enzyme, we established a stable cell line expressing mouse type 5 17beta-HSD in transformed human embryonic kidney (293) cells. The transfected cell line preferentially catalyzes the transformation of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) and androstanedione (A-dione) into testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively. This data is somewhat in contradiction with a previous study that described the enzyme as estradiol 17beta-dehydrogenase. Our results indicate that the rate of transformation of estradiol (E(2)) to estrone (E(1)) represents only 1% of the rate of transformation of 4-dione to T. Mouse type 5 17beta-HSD shares 76% amino acid sequence identity with human type 5 17beta-HSD; 71%, 76%, 76% with rat 3alpha-HSD and human types 1 and 3 3alpha-HSDs, respectively; and 71%, 69% and 77% with mouse, rat and human 20alpha-HSD, respectively. (+info)
Determination of cDNA, gene structure and chromosomal localization of the novel human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7(1).
We have identified human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (17beta-HSD 7). The novel human cDNA encodes a 37 kDa protein that shows 78 and 74% amino acid identity with rat and mouse 17beta-HSD 7, respectively. These enzymes are responsible for estradiol production in the corpus luteum during pregnancy, but are also present in placenta and several steroid target tissues (breast, testis and prostate) as revealed by RT-PCR. The human 17beta-HSD 7 gene (HSD17B7) consists of nine exons and eight introns, spanning 21. 8 kb and maps to chromosome 10p11.2 close to susceptibility loci for tumor progression, obesity and diabetes. The HSD17B7 promoter (1.2 kb) reveals binding sites for brain-specific and lymphoid transcription factors corresponding to additional expression domains in hematopoietic tissues and the developing brain as identified by in silico Northern blot. (+info)
In vivo and in vitro expression of steroid-converting enzymes in human breast tumours: associations with interleukin-6.
Enzymes modulating local steroid availability play an important role in the progression of human breast cancer. These include isoforms of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD), aromatase and steroid sulphatase (STS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of 17-HSD types I-IV, aromatase and steroid STS in a series of 51 human breast tumour biopsies and 22 primary cultures of epithelial and stromal cells derived from these tumours, giving a profile of the steroid-regulating network for individual tumours. Correlations between enzyme expression profiles and expression of the interleukin (IL)-6 gene were also sought. All except one tumour expressed at least one isoform of 17-HSD, either alone or in combination with aromatase and STS. Expression of 17-HSD isoforms I-IV were observed in nine tumours. Of the 15 tumours which expressed three isoforms, a combination of 17-HSD II, III and IV was most common (6/15 samples). The majority of tumours (n = 17) expressed two isoforms of 17-HSD with combinations of 17-HSD II and IV predominant (7/17 samples). Eight tumours expressed a single isoform and of these, 17-HSD I was in the majority (5/8 samples). In primary epithelial cultures, enzyme expression was ranked: HSD I (86%) > STS (77%) > HSD II (59%) > HSD IV (50%) = aromatase (50%) > HSD III (32%). Incidence of enzyme expression was generally reduced in stromal cultures which were ranked: HSD I (68%) > STS (67%) > aromatase (48%) > HSD II (43%) > HSD IV (28%) > HSD III (19%). Expression of IL-6 was associated with tumours that expressed > or = 3 steroid-converting enzymes. These tumours were of higher grade and tended to come from patients with family history of breast cancer. In conclusion, we propose that these enzymes work in tandem with cytokines thereby providing sufficient quantities of bioactive oestrogen from less active precursors which stimulates tumour growth. (+info)