Radioimmunoassay for 11-deoxycortisol using iodine-labeled tracer.
A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay for 11-deoxycortisol was developed. The antiserum produced in rabbits by immunizing with a complex of 11-deoxycortisol-3-oxime and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has little cross-reactivity with other endogenous steroids. The immunoassay procedure requires only one-step ethanol denaturation of binding proteins in plasma and extraction by an organic solvent can be omitted. Furthermore, use of 125I-labeled tracer significantly simplify the counting procedure. The method is sensitive enough to detect 1 microng/100 ml of 11-deoxycortisol. Plasma 11-deoxycortisol levels measured by this method after the administration of a single dose of metyrapone ranged from 5.0 to 19.2 microng/100 ml, whereas they were 0 to 4.0 microng/100 ml in hypopituitary patients. It is concluded that this simple method is useful for the routine assay of plasma 11-deoxycortisol as a parameter of the metyrapone tests. (+info)
A case of renin-producing adrenocortical cancer.
Here we report a case of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital complaining of thirst and generalized muscle weakness. She was diagnosed as being hypertensive and diabetic with associated hypokalemia and she had a hard elastic mass with a diameter of 10 cm on the left side of her neck. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a suprarenal mass on the left side (8.5 x 8 x 6.5 cm). Endocrinological examination demonstrated a marked elevation in the patient's serum glucocorticoid and sex steroid hormones as well as plasma renin activity. Histological examination of a sample taken from the neck mass revealed a metastasis from an adrenal carcinoma, which was stained positively with antibodies against cytochrome P450 and renin, establishing the diagnosis of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. Trilostane was effective in reducing serum cortisol levels, but mitotane was ineffective. (+info)
Nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay of plasma 11-deoxycortisol, for use in the metyrapone test, with polyethylene glycol as the precipant.
We have developed a simple, reliable radioimmunoassay for plasma 11-deoxycortisol. The method does not require chromatography but instead makes use of a simple extraction procedure which, in combination with the antibody characteristics, is highly specific for the metyrapone test. Polyethylene glycol was used to separate free and antibody-bound steroid. The smallest amount measurable is 15 pg (2.0 mug/liter of plasma). The method is shown to be precise and accurate. Intraassay precision of the method for two plasma pools was 26.7 plus or minus 2.5 mug/liter (CV equals 9.4%) and 61.2 plus or minus 3.7 mug/liter (CV equals 6.0%). The respective inter-assay precision was 27.0 plus or minus 1.7 mug/liter (CV equals 6.3%) and 59.9 plus or minus 2.3 mug/liter (CV equals 3.8%). The validity of the assay was further verified by evaluating the plasma 11-deoxycortisol response to metyrapone administration. The relative simplicity of the method and the commercial availability of all reagents, including antisera, makes this radioimmunoassay procedure practical for use in clinical laboratories. (+info)
The biochemical study of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) stress in oral surgery inpatients.
Although intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is performed to treat the patients with maxillary fracture, this procedure is very stressful to the patients. IMF has been reported to increase noradrenaline (NA) release in the brain and elevate plasma corticosterone contents in the rat. These changes were significantly attenuated by diazepam, an anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine family. These results suggest that IMF could greatly affect the pituitary-adrenal system as a stress. In the present study, in order to examine the influence of IMF on the human body function, we measured levels of 17-hydrocorticosteroids (17-OHCS) and 17-ketosteroid (17-KS), which are metabolites of the adreno-cortical hormone cortisol, in the urine of inpatients undergoing IMF. The subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire on irritableness caused by IMF. In these patients, urinary 17-OHCS levels were significantly increased after IMF and well correlated to the results of the questionnaire. The finding suggested that urinary 17-OHCS levels reflect stress related to IMF, and that such stress mainly causes an irritated feeling. Natural killer cell activity (NK activity), which is considered to be related to stress, was measured in these patients. The relationship between 17-OHCS levels and NK activity was examined in reference to the results of the questionnaire. Questionnaire showed that most patients noted insomnia and an irritated feeling during IMF. To examine the influence of anxiolytic agents on stress related to IMF, an anxiolytic agent, ethyl loflazepate, was administered during IMF, and urinary 17-OHCS levels were measured. There was no correlation between 17-OHCS levels and NK activity in the patients. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VSA) and NK activity. Increases in 17-OHCS levels in the group treated with ethyl loflazepate, an anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine family, were significantly lower than in the untreated group. This suggests that ethyl loflazepate reduced stress responses to IMF. It has been reported that NK activity is reduced inpatients with depression or chronic fatigue syndrome. However, NK activity may not be affected by mechanical stress such as IMF. The finding that an anxiolytic agent, ethyl loflazepate, inhibited stress responses to IMF further suggests that anxiolytic drugs are very useful for treatment of irritated feeling of the patients undergoing IMF. (+info)
Involvement of the cholinergic pathway in the pathogenesis of pituitary Cushing's syndrome.
Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is currently the first choice for treatment of patients with pituitary ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. However, pharmacotherapy is prescribed for some patients, e.g., unsuccessful surgery. We treated a woman in whom pituitary Cushing's syndrome was improved while she was on antimuscarinic cholinergic agents, atropine sulphate and pirenzepine hydrochloride. The diminished effect of anticholinergics on ACTH and cortisol was incidentally identified in an inferior petrosal sinus sampling procedure. A single intramuscular injection of atropine significantly decreased both ACTH (43.9 pg/ml to less than 12.0; normal, 12.0-40.0 pg/ml) and cortisol (29.9 microg/dl to 13.6; normal, 7.6-23.6 microg/dl). An M1-muscarinic receptor specific antagonist, pirenzepine hydrochloride, also had a diminishing effect on these hormones and this inhibiting effect was partially blocked by the simultaneous administration of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide. Chronic oral ingestion of these agents led to improvement in clinical symptoms, and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid and 17-ketosteroid levels were at normal to upper-normal levels. This is the first documentation of involvement of the cholinergic system in the pathogenesis of pituitary Cushing's syndrome. (+info)
Parallel radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol.
We describe a direct, rapid, and specific procedure for the parallel radioimmunoassay for cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol in plasma. The plasma sample is used directly, after heat inactivation of the natural cortisol-binding protein. The radioimmunoassay utilizes antibodies generated in rabbits by steroids congugated at their 3-oxo position to thyroglobulin. Ammonium sulfate is used to separate bound and free steroids. Our cortisol antibody and an 11-deoxycortisol antibody obtained elsewhere cross reacted negligibly with each other or with other steroids that might be present in plasma. Radioimmunoassays were therefore developed for both steroids in only 1.25 mul of plasma. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for both steroids were less than 10%, with a sensitivyt of 4 mug/liter. Steroid values obtained by a competitive protein binding method were consistently higher than those of the present method, suggesting that the former is measuring total corticosteroids. This simple approach requires only 4 h for the specific measurement of both cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol in 20 samples of plasma. (+info)
A natural history of adrenocorticotropin-independent bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (AIMAH) from preclinical to clinically overt Cushing's syndrome.
A 49-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of gallstones in 1993. Bilateral adrenal nodular masses were detected incidentally by abdominal computed tomography. He had no clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome such as central obesity, striae of skin and diabetes mellitus. We performed cholecystectomy and partial adrenalectomy of right adrenal gland as a biopsy, and diagnosed him as preclinical Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocorticotropin-independent bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (AIMAH) based on endocrinological and histological examinations. We followed him up for 7 years. During the observation period, the sizes of both adrenal glands increased gradually, and finally serum cortisol level increased beyond normal range, and he showed a Cushingoid appearance such as moon face and central obesity. His skin became atrophic and very fragile, and the bone mineral density of his lumbar spine was extremely low. Serum cortisol level was elevated, and plasma ACTH level was always suppressed. Urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid and free cortisol were increased. Diurnal rhythm of cortisol and ACTH was completely lost and high dose (8 mg/day) dexamethasone did not suppress urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. He became clinically overt Cushing's syndrome. We recommended total adrenalectomy, but he refused it. It is important to know the natural history of preclinical Cushing's syndrome due to AIMAH when choosing an adequate treatment. (+info)
Enzyme induction by enflurane in man.
Concentrations of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol (6-OHF), a polar metabolite of cortisol formed in the endoplasmic reticulum (microsomes) of the liver, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) were measured in the urines of six healthy adult male volunteers exposed to a mean of 9.6 MAC-hours of enflurane anesthesia as an index of possible enzyme induction. The ratio of 6-OHF to 17-OHCS in 24-hour urine specimens collected five days before anesthesia was compared with the ratio of these metabolites in 24-hour urine specimens collected 16 to 18 hours after anesthesia. The ratio of 6-OHF to 17-OHCS increased markedly in five and decreased slightly in one volunteer following anesthesia. The results indicate that enflurane may cause induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. (+info)