Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Pets: Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Animal DiseasesEctoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Communicable DiseasesSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Duddingtonia: A genus of ascomycetous mitosporic fungi in the family Orbiliaceae. It is used for the biological control of nematodes in livestock.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Transferrins: A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.Erythrovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, and containing the type species PARVOVIRUS B19, HUMAN.BrazilBrucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Trichinella: A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Anisakiasis: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Dirofilariasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Bites and StingsTularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.EuropeIntestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.ItalyPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.ColombiaParasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.DairyingSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)IndiaVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.United StatesBacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mice, Inbred BALB CAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
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