Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Pruritus Vulvae: Intense itching of the external female genitals.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Atrophy and shriveling of the SKIN of the VULVA that is characterized by the whitish LICHEN SCLEROSUS appearance, inflammation, and PRURITUS.Secernentea: A subclass of nematodes characterized by numerous caudal papillae and an excretory system possessing lateral canals.Paget Disease, Extramammary: A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Syringoma: A benign tumor of the sweat glands which is usually multiple and results from malformation of sweat ducts. It is uncommon and more common in females than in males. It is most likely to appear at adolescence, and further lesions may develop during adult life. It does not appear to be hereditary. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2407-8)Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Lymphangioma: A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Groin: The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.Paget's Disease, Mammary: An intraductal carcinoma of the breast extending to involve the nipple and areola, characterized clinically by eczema-like inflammatory skin changes and histologically by infiltration of the dermis by malignant cells (Paget's cells). (Dorland, 27th ed)Leiomyoma, Epithelioid: A relatively rare smooth muscle tumor found most frequently in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the stomach. It is similar to other smooth muscle tumors but may become very large and hemorrhage and exhibit small cystic areas. Simple excision is almost always curative. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1354)DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.LymphangitisCaenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Lymphangiectasis: A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Penile Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.Vulvodynia: Complex pain syndrome with unknown etiology, characterized by constant or intermittent generalized vulva pain (Generalized vulvodynia) or localized burning sensations in the VESTIBULE area when pressure is applied (Vestibulodynia, or Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome). Typically, vulvar tissue with vulvodynia appears normal without infection or skin disease. Vulvodynia impacts negatively on a woman's quality of life as it interferes with sexual and daily activities.Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.Pelvic Exenteration: Removal of all of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis. It is usually performed to surgically remove cancer involving the bladder, uterine cervix, or rectum. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Semaphorins: A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
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