Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
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