Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Intercostal Nerves: The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Hemopneumothorax: Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.Esophagostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.Mediastinal Diseases: Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pleural DiseasesChest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Thoracic Diseases: Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinum, the area between the pleural sacs.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Thoracoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the pleural cavity.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pneumothorax, Artificial: Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the PLEURAL CAVITY to collapse the lung.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Goiter, Substernal: An enlarged THYROID GLAND with at least 50% of the gland situated behind the STERNUM. It is an unusual presentation of an intrathoracic goiter. Substernal goiters frequently cause compression on the TRACHEA leading to deviation, narrowing, and respiratory symptoms.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Pancoast Syndrome: A condition caused by an apical lung tumor (Pancoast tumor) with involvement of the nearby vertebral column and the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder and the arm, and atrophy of the hand.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Esophageal Perforation: An opening or hole in the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by TRAUMA, injury, or pathological process.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Esophagoplasty: A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)