Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Tenodesis: Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.TailWrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
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