Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Radius FracturesRadius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Tenodesis: Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.Volar Plate: A thick, fibrocartilaginous ligament at the metacarpophalageal joint.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Subtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.DislocationsHumeral FracturesJoint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
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