Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Track and Field: Sports performed on a track, field, or arena and including running events and other competitions, such as the pole vault, shot put, etc.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Snow Sports: Sports activities in the snow.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Martial Arts: Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.Fitness Centers: Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Hockey: A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Veterinary Sports Medicine: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with PHYSICAL FITNESS of animals in sports (horse racing, dog racing, etc.) and the diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries in animals.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Wrestling: A sport consisting of hand-to-hand combat between two unarmed contestants seeking to pin or press each other's shoulders to the ground.Sports for Persons with Disabilities: Activities or games played by PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES, usually requiring physical effort or skill. The activities or games may be specifically created or based on existing sports, with or without modifications, to meet the needs of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Gymnastics: Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Leisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Schools: Educational institutions.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Volleyball: A team sport in which two teams hit an inflated ball back and forth over a high net using their hands.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Sports Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES during EXERCISE and ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE as well as specific NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS of ATHLETES and the relationship between NUTRITIONAL STATUS and NUTRITION DISORDERS in athletes.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Epitestosterone: The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Jogging: Running at a low rate of speed. It can be done as a means of conditioning or for general health and well being.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.DislocationsAnniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.United StatesShips: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Femoracetabular Impingement: A pathological mechanical process that can lead to hip failure. It is caused by abnormalities of the ACETABULUM and/or FEMUR combined with rigorous hip motion, leading to repetitive collisions that damage the soft tissue structures.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.SwitzerlandVideo Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Drowning: Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Groin: The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)VermontTennis Elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fasciitis, Plantar: Inflammation of the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot (plantar fascia) causing HEEL pain. The plantar fascia (also called plantar aponeurosis) are bands of fibrous tissue extending from the calcaneal tuberosity to the TOES. The etiology of plantar fasciitis remains controversial but is likely to involve a biomechanical imbalance. Though often presenting along with HEEL SPUR, they do not appear to be causally related.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.ShoesAnkle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.New HampshirePlatelet-Rich Plasma: A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.BelgiumLigaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.FinlandDefibrillators: Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the HEART. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION or ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) that is not accompanied by a palpable PULSE. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or CARDIOVERSION), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. (UMDNS, 2003)Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Commotio Cordis: A sudden CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (e.g., VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION) caused by a blunt, non-penetrating impact to the precordial region of chest wall. Commotio cordis often results in sudden death without prompt cardiopulmonary defibrillation.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)AmputeesAnecdotes as Topic: Brief accounts or narratives of an incident or event.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Estranes: A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AccidentsAmenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.