Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Epidural Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Spinal DiseasesMyelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Scheuermann Disease: A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Rheumatic Nodule: A small round or oval, mostly subcutaneous nodule made up chiefly of a mass of Aschoff bodies and seen in cases of rheumatic fever. It is differentiated from the RHEUMATOID NODULE which appears in rheumatoid arthritis, most frequently over bony prominences. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Balloon Embolectomy: The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Osteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.