Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Skin DiseasesHumidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.TailPiloerection: Involuntary erection or bristling of hairs.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytostatic Agents: Compounds that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of CELLS.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Arteriovenous Anastomosis: A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.